CANADA COUNTS NOSES
EARLY on the morning of June first next, Johnny Canuck will set forth with an indelible pencil over his ear and a bundle of crinkling blue printed forms under his arm. He will transform himself into a walking question-mark, knocking loudly at every door in his huge domain and politely demanding information of an intimate nature regarding every human being who slept under each and every roof the night before, even to the ruddy babe whose birth-cry has but barely announced the arrival of a new Canadian.
As,a matter of official supposition, Johnny Canuck will count every living nose in the Dominion of Canada between sunrise and sunset on the day of June first, because all tabulations will be entered as matters existed in Canada on that date. As a matter of official fact, the Dominion bureau of statistics hopes to have the sixth census of Canada completed in one month from June 1st. Two weeks is the time allotted for gathering and turning in all data 1'rom cities and towns. Rural sections and unorganized districts will take twice the time allowed in the urban centers.
Public interest centers in one definite quest of the censustakers: How many people will the census show to be living in Canada on June 1 st, 1921 ?
This is a question in whose answer every Canadian man, woman and school child will take a leading interest, though the matter of enumerating the people is but one of many national details included in the coming census.
Expect to Count 9,000,000
AN UNOFFICIAL surmise, based on certain official indications, is that the population of the Dominion of Canada will be found to be somewhere around 9,000,000, more or less. The last Dominion census, taken in 1911, discovered 7,206,643 inhabitants. Even the best informed hesitate about making predictions. Old, experienced statisticians have seen distinct surprises uncovered in this work, the most unexpected on record following the censustaking of 1901. In that year, previous to the compilation of the returns it was generally conceded at Ottawa that the total enumeration would disclose a population well in excess of the 6,000,000 mark. But when every living human was counted, even to the dog-eating citizens of the Arctic fringe, it was found they totalled 5,371,000, and no more.
It is very difficult to maintain anything like an accurate estimate of the population of the Dominion between federal censuses, so statisticians state, principally on account of Canada keeping no official record of emigration—that is of people permanently leaving this country for the United States and elsewhere. A tragic incidental which must be taken into account in any forecast of present population is that between the year 1914 and 1918 fifty-five thousand of Canada’s native and adopted sons marched off into the fog of war and never returned.
Census-taking in Canada is a tremendous task when the area to be covered is taken into consideration. In no other country on the face of the globe is the situation quite the same as in this Dominion with its centers of denser population strung along a southerly fringe 3,772 miles long and its whole nine million or more inhabitants scattered over an
But Johnny Canuck is not interested solely in counting the members of his family. He is as well curious to know what their aggregate wealth amounts to; not wealth in paper bank notes and metal coins, but the real and potential wealth that those things merely symbolize, such as land, implements, machinery, live stock, etc., and the various products brought forth from or through them. Details which the sixth census will incorporate are population: general agricultural schédules, records of garden production and livestock in cities and towns and records of trading establishments in the Dominion, including stores, factories and all kinds of businesses.
If the plans of the Minister of Trade and Commerce, Sir George E. Foster, and Dominion Statistician R. H. Coats are carried out successfully this will be the most rapid and accurate census ever taken in the Dominion. As stated previously, it is expected the sixth census of Canada will be completed in one month’s time; whereas in 1911 only ninety-seven per cent, of the whole work was finished at the end of August—three months after the work was initiated.
Several departures from the old system largely contribute toward making census-taking less'intricate than formerly, not to mention the fact that the staff will be more efficiently manned. While the census commissioners will be less in number this time, the number of enumerators employed will be greater. In 1911 the government appointed 264 commissioners and 9,703 enumerators were employed by the latter; whereas, this year 240 commissioners have been appointed and these are empowered to employ 11,500 enumerators. In all but ten electoral districts a single commissioner is in charge and the ten larger districts have been divided, and apportioned each to two commissioners, there being 230 electoral districts all told in Canada. All the commissioners are appointed by the Department of Trade and Commerce and each commissioner is held responsible to the department for the work of the enumerators employed under him.
New Department in Charge ' I 'HIS will be the first census taken in Canada under the jurisdiction of the Department of Trade and Commerce. Previous censuses were carried out under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture; in 1901 and 1911 with the late Hon. Sidney Fisher as minister and Dr. A. Blue as chief of the census department. With the change in departments came several other changes which will considerably lessen the amount of work each enumerator has to do. In the first place it was formerly the custom to take the whole census of the Dominion every ten years, including the industrial, fisheries, mining and general census. Now a great bulk of this work is attended to yearly by the pro-
vincial authorities in co-operation with the federal department. The result is that this time all that has to be taken care of is the population data and general agricultural schedules.
Mortality statistics are no longer included in the decennial census. These are now taken care of annually by the various provinces in co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. The Dominion bureau prints the forms and supplies them free to the provincial departments
and the provincial authorities collect the information and supply a copy of the original forms with the blanks filled in to the bureau. Another feature of the old-time census removed from decennial work is the gathering of statistics with regard to national fisheries. Fisheries statistics are now collected annually in co-operation with the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the officials of the latter collecting the information and the Bureau of Statistics compiling the data for filing and reference purposes. The official reports on fisheries are printed by the bureau in collaboration with the Department of Marine and Fisheries.
The bureau has also entered into a co-operative agreement with the provincial departments of mines and a separate section of the bureau deals exclusively with data relating to mines and chemicals. Most of these co-operative arrangements between the federal authorities and the provincial departments were completed in the year 1918, so that they were brought into a state of efficiency before the actual labors on the sixth decennial census of Canada was begun. The remova’ of all this intricate detail from the hands of the federal census-takers is expected to make a considerable difference in the time and expense involved and to promote a higher degree of efficiency in gathering the facts and insure greater accuracy in tabulating them.
Police and Factors to Help
CENSUS statistics in the hinterlands and unorganized territories of the Dominion are also taken care of on the co-operative basis. Members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Hudson’s Bay factors and missionaries of the various denominations have been officially appointed by the Department of Trade and Commerce to.take the census in the far-flung sections of the Dominion. Indian agents will take the census on the Indian reserves, a cooperative arrangement being entered into by the Bureau of Statistics with the Department of Indian Affairs similar in nature to that existing between the bureau and the Department of Marine and Fisheries.
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics possesses inquisitorial powers in its quest for official information from the public in general, and the co-operating departments, census commissioners and enumerators, during the performance of their duties in connection with gathering statistics, are clothed' with the same powers to compel answers; a refusal therefore on the part of any citizen of Canada to answer legitimate questions asked by a qualified enumerator would constitute an offence against the state. The enumerators, however, are only empowered to ask such questions as appear on the census forms they carry with them and every bona fide enumerator is supplied with a credential card bearing the signature of R. H. Coats, Dominion Statistician.
Six official forms are being used in the sixth census, and they are entitled, “Population,” “Animal, Animal Products, Fruits, Etc., Not on Farms,” “Census ’of Agriculture,” “Individual Form —Population,” “Census of Manufacturing, Trading and Business Establishments,” and “Supplemental Schedule for the Blind and for Deaf-Mutes.” Every enumerator is also supplied with two forms of postal card; the “Closed House Card” and the “Absentee Family Card,” the first-named to be used in reporting closed houses or dwellings in cities and towns and the latter In reporting families occupying temporary homes or lodgings in the enumerator’s subdistrict. In each case the enumerator fills in the blanks on the back of the postal card, giving the name of the head of the family, number of persons in the family and their permanent post office address. After filling'in the information he mails the card to the Bureau of Statistics at Ottawa, where the cards are filed for future attention.
THE form entitled “Population” demands the name of every person in the household, place of abode, tenure and class of home, personal description, nativity, citizen-
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CANADA WAS FIRST
Ç^HSTTING an approximate idea of the number of inhabitants in the country—in ancient times principally for military purposes—is a system that is as old as civilization itself. Nations whose glory rose and faded before the birth of Christ left behind records which show that they divided their territory up into military districts and made an official count of the men of military age in each district. Almost every succeeding civilization practised a similar method.
But in the northern half of this continent, now our own Dominion of Canada, the first systematic census of the people, later copied by other world nations, was taken, according to histoidans. An Australian authority says the first systematic enumeration was taken in what is now the province of Quebec in the year 1666. The details arc told in this article on the Sixth Decennial Census of Canada.
Continued from page 9
ship, race, language, religion, education, profession, occupation and employment. The head of the house must tell whether he owns or rents the home, and, if rented, what rent he pays a month, the materials of construction in the house and the number of rooms in the house occupied by the family. The ages of every member of the household on their last birthday must be given as well as a statement as to whether
married or single.' Under the head of citizenship, the country to 'which the individual owes allegiance is demanded as well as his or her racial origin and the languages which he or she can speak. Citizens of Canada born in other countries must'tell the year'they immigrated and the year they naturalized. The enumerator will demand to know in each case whether the individual can read and write, and, in
the case of children of school age, as to the number of months that they attended school since September, 1920. Besides enlightening1 the enumerator as to' the occupation from'which he gains his'livelihood, the individual must tell how many weeks he or she was unemployed during the twelve months prior to .June 1st and his'or'her total earnings'in the same twelve months.
The form coming under the title of “Animals, Animal Products, Fruit, Etc., Not 'on Farms,” demands very definite information regarding stock of all 'kinds owned by the individual, including horses, mules, cattle, swine, poultry and bees, and the total products'in the way of milk, butter, eggs, honey and wax produced during the year. Ages'of the stock must also be given. Areas of gardens and hot-houses, value of flowers and flowering plants, number of fruit trees and fruit produced are among the questions asked, while grapes, strawberries'and other'small'fruits are taken up similarly under a separate
“Catechism” for Farmers
BUT it is'the farmer, under the head of “Census of Agriculture,” who has the longestlist'of questions'to answer when the enumerator comes around. Every agriculturist'in the land must reply as truthfully as he can to no less than two hundred and twenty questions on this'form alone besides giving the information asked for regarding himself and the members of his family in the “Population Form.” It is, however, explicitly set'forth bn the “Census'of Agriculture” form that'all information reported on that 'schedule will be treated as absolutely confidential and that such information will not'be used as a basis for taxation nor communicated to any assessor 'or other government department.
The farmer must tell how he operates his farm, .whether he owns or rents it, and in the latter case, how much rent'he pays a year. Among other things, he must disclose how much land he has improved and brought under cultivation, the amount of unbroken land, waste land, value of farm buildings and machinery, how 'much has been expended on fertilizer, cost of farm labor, area and value of individual crops sown and harvested in 1920, farm garden and market garden statistics, number 'of fruit trees of divers kinds on the farm, small fruits, area of green-houses and hothouses and value of their products for 1920,'maple syrup production, number and value of all domestic animals, poultry and bees and the value of their'products,'number and description of all young'animals raised on the farm, pure-bred animals owned on June 1st, animals slaughtered on the farm and animals sold alive off the farm, 'a full list of tractors, automobiles, gasoline engines, telephones and other facilities'such as lighting and waterworks, all products sold during'the year through co-operative markets and descriptions of drainage and irrigation employed on the
The “Individual Form—Population” is merely a'repetition of what appears'on the “Population” form, condensed on folders which are to be left 'with boarding-house keepers,'mining'superintendents, construction foremen, etc., for the use of individuals in their care or employ who'may happen to be absent when the enumerator 'calls. Refusal or neglect on the part of any such individual'to fill in the form left'for him by the enumerator'is punishable by a fine not to'exceed one hundred dollars'and not less than twenty dollars, or imprisonment for from'thirty days to'three months.
The “Census'of Manufacturing, Trading and 'Business Establishments” is the simplest of all the forms. It merely calls for the firm name, address, class and kind or nature of business.
The “Supplemental Schedule for the Blind and for Deaf-Mutes” is designed to obtain official and accurate records of the age and post'office address'of every person in Canada who Is blind and of every person who is a deaf mute. All that'is demanded of the individual in this caseis his or her name, sex, age, post office address'and the defect'from which he or she suffers.
Canada Pioneered Census-Taking
OFFICIAL efforts'to ascertain the number'of people making'up various nations and tribes are as old as the history'of civilization itself, but a fact that is not generally known is 'that the credit for taking the first census of modern times belongs to the Dominion of Canada. This
was taken underFrench rule. Records show that censuses were taken of Port Royal in 1605 and of Quebec in 1608, the records still being extant. The first systematic “nominal” enumeration of the people of what then comprised “white Canada,” recording each individual by name, showing age, sex, occupation and conjugal and family condition, however, took place under the French régime in “New’France,” as Canada was at that time known, in the year 1666. The results of this official inquiry occupy 154 pages of manuscript deposited in the archives of Paris, France, with a transcript of the same at Ottawa. According'to this, our earliest census of a comprehensive nature, there were living in Canada on that date, 3,215 souls, exclusive of Indians. Two years later a supplementary inquiry was instituted to gather data as to the areas under cultivation and the numbers of live stock in the possession of settlers. A similar census was taken of Acadia (Nova'Scotia) in the year 1671. Such was the satisfaction over the first official census-taking that the process'was repeated several times during the subsequent hundred years and it was extended to 'cover all the French colonies in America.
Later, under British rule, following the British conquest in 1763, censuses of different sections of Canada were taken at frequent but'irregular periods. The policy of desultory census-taking ended in Canada in 1847'and a decennial census was provided for by act of parliament. In 1865, however, the minister of agriculture, Hon. T. D’Arcy McGee, made a withering attack on the made of census-taking in vogue, insisting that it “abounded in inaccuracies and inconsistencies” as well as “absurdities of the most 'ridiculous character,” notwithstanding that over $260,000 had been expended on the preparation of the two first attempts at a decennial census. The report of Hon. Mr. McGee concluded with a plea for “real Canadian statistics,” to be achieved under nine recommendations, and those nine recommendations largely form the basis for the census-taking used in the Dominion to-day. Dr. J. C. Tache, secretary of the board of registration and statistics, who appended a memorial to Hon. Mr. McGee’s report and to whom no doubt the minister was indebted for the most of his official information, was made commissioner of the census of 1871, taken under a special act passed in 1870. But from a legislative point of view, the statistical system which existed until 1918 may be said to date from the “Census and Statistics Act” of 1879, an act that required a census to be taken in 1881 and at the beginning 'of every tenth year there-
The “First” and “Second” Censuses
WHAT are officially known as the first and second censuses of Canada were taken in 1871 and 1881 by Dr. Tache, the third in 1891 by the late George Johnson, the fourth and fifth in 1901 and 1911 by the late Dr. Archibald Blue; while the sixth or present census, considerably revised in system by reason of the provinces and other departments taking over the gathering of certain statistics annually, is being prosecuted under the supervision of Dominion Statistician R. H. Coats.
Thus Johnny Canuck, soon to be busy counting his people and making an approximation of their collective wealth, is engaged in a businesslike undertaking which he really pioneered and was first to establish among modern nations. For while our historical records show that Canada started census-taking in the early part of the seventeenth century, the first European censuses—those of certain of the Teutonic kingdoms—date only from an early period in the eighteenth century. Those of France and England date from the first year of the nineteenth century. For those who may doubt that the first actual census was evolved and brought into'practice in Canada a note by no less an authority than H. G. Knibbs, C.M.G.. F.S.S., Commonwealth Statistician of Australia, may prove illuminating. An actual quotation in part from the note should suffice:
“Though the practice of census-taking, in some form or other, is probably as old as any form of civilization, the institution now known as the census may be said, in so'far as its scope and application are concerned, to have been evolved during the nineteenth century. ... A form of census taken every quinquennium for fiscal and
military purposes, was a regular Roman institution and lasted from 435 B.C. until the sacking of Rome (A.D. 410). After the latter date. ... we have no record of any further census having been taken until the seventeenth century. The credit, for the renvoi of systematic enumeration belongs to the Canadian province of Quebec, or La Nouvelle France, as it was then called. There a census was taken in 1666, and at a somewhat later date censuses were also taken in Nova Scotia (then Acadia) and Newfoundland.”