Jack Canuck Sums Up His Heritage
OFTEN, as I look at my seven-year-old Junior, I wonder how he will shape his future. No doubt you’ve wondered about your own lad; what he is likely to do when he grows to manhood; how he will earn his way in the world. It is the inevitable problem of parentage, it seems.
But, here in Canada, fortunately, the concern of fathers and of mothers may quickly be dissipated.
Look about you in a broad, national way!
What do you find?
There are vast, fertile plains there are great agricultural stretches, the cultivation of which will bring most generous returns. There are resources of forest, whose cutting has developed and will continue to develop—unless haste and waste bring undue depletion—an enormously important industrial unit. There is wealth in our mines, now returning more than $200,000,000 annually; an inexhaustible supply of power in our national waterways. Our rivers and lakes yield increasing wealth; our fur-bearing animals return handsome profits. Then,
too, we are engaged in the age-old business of buying and selling to the world, with an annual turnover of two billion dollars. Surely there is scant cause to worry about young Jack Canuck’s outlook!
Canada’s uncertainties of the moment, perplexities brought about by international economic adjustments, after all, are mainly political. Canada is fundamentally sound.
“The greatness of Canada’s future is beyond question.”
Thus Otto H. Kahn, the New York international banker who recently delivered a ringing speech of tribute to the Dominion, as a treasure house among nations.
It was not an author seeking to intrigue with catch phrase. It was not a propagandist; nor, indeed, was it a native Canadian, who might have been accused of dangerous optimism. Otto Kahn is a man of international finance, who is not going about the world uttering pretty words about Canada unless he is reasonably assured that what he says is basically true, and fairly beyond dispute.
Let us examine, then, what the “last will and testament” of Father Time bequeaths to Jack Canuck.
First of all, there is the business of farming.
It is not for nothing that our farmers pursue their “daily round.”
The total agricultural revenue of Canada last year was $1,453,368,000; two years ago, $1,350,096,000.
Farming then may be safely reckoned as a thoroughly seasoned industry. The large increase of $103,272,000 or 7.6 per cent, between 1923 and 1924 was due chiefly to the rise in cereal prices.
Two dollar wheat for instance was of immediate importance to every agrarian, if not to every purse in the Dominion. After all when the farmer is prosperous the country is prosperous.
Admittedly, Canada, outside of agriculture, has a much greater variety of assets than she had ten years ago. At the same time agriculture appears certain to be the Dominion’s key industry for a long time to come. Professor Lyde of the University of London, England, recently ventured the opinion that the future of grain growing lies with the farmers of Canada.
Many opinions have been expressed that with the comeback of Russia
the future of grain growing on this continent might be seriously affected; this eminent authority, however, points out that Russia has been an artificial exporter—
AGRICULTURAL WEALTH OF CANADA, BY PROVINCES (000’s omitted) Animals AgriLive on Fur cultural Provinces Lands Buildings Impl’ts Stock Po’try Farms Prod’ion Total Pr. Ed. Island 28,476 17,289 6,870 8J)41 818 2,689 18,364 82,547 Nova Scotia . . 49,155 51,173 10,146 17,486 810 485 37,000 166,255 New Brunswick 61,112 45,158 13,545 13,659 1,063 790 28,322 163,649 Quebec ........... 546,666 285,530 111,940 114,418 7,103 936 241,842 1,308,435 808,124 49)1,330 169,954 208,997 17,159 1,142 444,208 2,140,914 Manitoba......... 315,245 113,006 67,848 49,096 2,907 637 161,913 710,651 Saskatchewan 877,042 216,398 176,676 124,546 5,708 111 281,992 1,682,473 Alberta........... 523,221 121,765 98,814 89,682 4,690 320 200,672 1,039,164 British Columbia 107,020 41,036 9,379 15,219 2,176 284 39,005 214,169 All Canada 3.316,061 1,382,684 665,172 641.144 42,434 7,394 1,453,368 7,508,257
has never been a natural exporter—of wheat, and never will be an exporter. In exporting, she was selling the patrimony of her children; bread from the mouths of her
own people. It is also pretty generally accepted that in a comparatively few years the United States will cease to be an exporter of wheat; requiring all she grows for domestic consumption.
The demand for Canada’s wheat is world-wide. As evidence: the Port of Montreal shipped over 153,000,000 bushels of grain for the 1924 season, a Canadian record. Montreal achieved this notable record, too, at a time when Canada’s second front door, the Port of Vancouver, is assuming increasing importance as a grain shipper.
Canadian farmers—international view of them to the contrary—do not go in exclusively for cereals. Last year they secured $234,000,000 for dairy products; $60,000,000 for poultry and eggs; $6,000,000 for maple sugar products.
Have you ever considered how diversified Canadian farming has become? An analysis of last year’s agricultural revenue appears in an accompanying table. Comparing the agricultural
income of each province for 1924, Ontario leads with a total value of over $444,000,000. Next in order are: Saskatchewan, with nearly $282,000,000; Quebec, about
$242,000,000; Alberta, upwards of $200,000,000; Manitoba, nearly $162,000,000; British Columbia, $39,000,000; Nova Scotia, $37,000,000; New Brunswick, $28,000,000; Prince Edward Island, $18,000,000.
So much then for farm earnings. How have the farmers employed these profits?
Federal statisticians sejt down the gross agricultural wealth of Canada at the present time at over seven and a half billion dollars. Which is seventeen hundred dollars for every man, woman and child in rural Canada.
This wealth is “tucked away” safely —as is evidenced by the figures on the agricultural wealth of Canada appearing on these pages.
And then there is the matter of international trade. In the fiscal year which closed March 31, 1925, Canada turned over almost two billion dollars—actually
$1,866,000,200—in foreign commerce. This consisted of approximately $797,000,000 imports and over $1,000,000,000 exports—a
favorable trade balance of $272,-
The healthy element of our trade position is the preponderance of those exports which are basic in the country’s development. For instance, impressively contributing to our growing traffic with other countries was our export of agricultural and vegetable products, in round numbers, to the amount of $443,000,000. “Wood and paper exports—actually the out-turn of our forests—contributed $253,000,000. Animal products accounted for $163,000,000. Fisheries $40,000,000, of which amount, over a period of years, about 75 per cent, has been exported.
In short, over eighty per cent, of Canada’s shipments abroad come from farm, forests and fisheries.
Truly our fertile lands and “tall timbers” are far-reaching dividend producers.
Empire commerce plays an increasing part in the consummation of Canadian business abroad. Nearly twenty-five per cent, of our imports, actually $194,000,000, came from within the Empire and forty-five per cent, or $475,000,000 of our exports went either to Great Britain direct or to the overseas Dominions.
Great Britain continues uncontested as Canada’s second best customer. In the past year, Great Britain purchased to the extent of $151,000,000 in the Dominion; which was ten millions more than she purchased here in 1923.
Definite indication of what England buys in this country is given in an analysis of the main groups of our trade with the United Kingdom, appearing in this article.
Canadians are prone to regard Uncle Sam as their best customer. Study of the trade returns discloses, however, that the aggregate of our exports to Empire markets has become greater than the total of our exports to the United States.
Last year Empire buyers took a total of $475,000,000 of Canadian goods; United States, $417,000,000.
The possibilities of Empire co-operation are immediately evident. Apropos of this changing trend a recent C.P.R. bulletin says: “It indicates that the Canadian policy of widening the range of her external trade through the medium of trade treaties is having effectIt is not for nothing that half a dozen such treaties assuring favored treatment for Canadian products have been undertaken.”
Three and a Half Billion Income
/CANADA’S production income from all sources last year exceeded $3,411,000,000. It was half a billion more than the gross federal debt. It was $365 for every individual in the Dominion.
Which is a cheerful return for any country and particularly a young country!
Although Canada is primarily agrarian, increasing revenues develop yearly from other branches of industry. Manufacturing and the fuller development of our natural resources, mining, fishing, forestry and furs—continually create new fornis of wealth for Canada.
What, then of Canada’s physical assets, those natural resources over which provinces quibble with the federal administration, and silver-tongued men and women orate unrestrainedly?
Mighty are our water power resources —mighty and waiting to be harnessed.
We have one trillion tons of black coal and forty-one million horse-power of “white coal.”
The figures seem colossal but they are the studied estimates of experts.
E. S. Moore, professor of economic geology at the University of Toronto is authority for the statement that “Canada has something over one trillion tons of coal of all types, sufficient to last her at the present rate of production through several thousands of years.” Canada’s immediate coal handicap, however, is that these coal deposits are on the east and west borders of the country while sixty per cent, of the population is distributed over the area lying between.
Immigration probably will tend to overcome this economic problem.
As for “white coal”, stalwart of modern industries:
WHERE OUR NATIONAL WEALTH IS TUCKED AWAY
Here is an estimate of the national wealth of Canada with percentage and per capita distribution of component items, as computed by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics from the 1921
Average Amount per Aggregate Head of Classification of Wealth Amount Population Farm values (land, buildings, implements, machinery and live stock, census 1921) .............................. 6,586,648,126 749 Agricultural products in the possession of farmers and traders, 1921 ........................................ 1,396,223,000 159 Total agricultural wealth, 1921 ........................... 7,982,871,126 908 Mines (capital employed, 1921) .......................... 559,514,154 64 Forests (estimated value of accessible raw materials, pulpwood and capital invested in woods operations)....... 1,197,660,OO'O 136 Fisheries (capital invested in boats, gear, etc., in primary operations, 1921) .................................... 25,648,650 3 Central electric stations (capital invested, 1921)........... 239,675,661 27 Manufactures (machinery and tools, 1921)................ 610,068,624 70 Manufactures (materials on hand, stocks in process; estimate for amount in dealers’ hands, 1921)............. 1,362,535,764 155 Steam railways (investment in road and equipment)...... 2,159.298,000 246 Electric railways (investment in road and equipment)..... 186,519,439 21 Canals (amount expended on construction to March 31st, 1922).............................................. 141,425,373 16 Telephone (cost of property and equipment).............. 158,678,229 18 Urban real property (assessed valuations and exempted property and estimated for under valuation by assessors, and for roads, sewers, etc.) ..................... 5,751,505,257 654 Shipping (estimated from 1918 census and distributed according to tonnage owned) .................•...... 100,000,000 11 Imported merchandise in store, being one-half imports TT during year 1921 ................................... 373,902,166 43 Household furnishings, clothing, carriages, motors, etc., distributed according to wealth and population....... 1,144,000,000 130 Specie held by Government and chartered banks and estimated for public holdings .................. 202,000,000 23 Total estimated wealth, 1921 ............................ 22,195,302,443 2,525
Read what J. B. Challies, C.E., former director of the Dominion Water Power and Reclamation Service has to say, and in the reading, try not to gasp!
Here is his official report to the Dominion government:
“The known available water power in Canada, from all sources and within the limitations outlined is upwards of 18,000,-
000 horse-power, for conditions of ordinary minimum flow, and 32,000,000 horsepower under a flow estimated for maximum development, i.e., dependable for at least six months of the year. It is believed that these are conservative estimates since an analysis of the water power plants scattered from coast to coast concerning which complete data are available as to turbine installation and satisfactory information as to stream flow, gives an average machine installation thirty per cent, greater than the six-month flow maximum power.
“Applying this, the figures quoted above, therefore, indicate that the present recorded water-power resources of the Dominion will permit of a turbine installation of 41,700,000 horse-power.
“The total installation to February 1, 1924, in water-wheels and turbines throughout the Dominion is over three and a quarter million horse-power. In other words, the present turbine installation represents only eight per cent, of the recorded water-power resources.” Can any Canadian read this statement and not get a decided “kick” out of it?
1 thrill at the vast possibilities for
expansion of Canadian industry in the
days to come; at the heritage which awaits our sons and daughters.
Only eight per cent, of the country’s available water-
powers are now developed. But this eight per cent, represents a capital investment of $687,000,000. In 1940 should the rate of growth during the past fifteen years continue, this investment will have grown to $1,500,000,000.
The present development represents an annual equivalent of 29,000,000 tons of coal, which, valued at ten dollars, represents $290,000,000. In 1940 these annual figures will, with the foregoing assumption, have become 63,000,000 tons and $630,000,000.
Something, indeed, for Young Canada to look forward to!
Metals and Tall Timbers
AT'HREE factors feature the nation’s -*• mining progress—increased interest on the part of British and United States investors in Canadian mines; a significant increase in the output of certain minerals; an important gain in the revenue of carriers of mineral products.
Last year, Canada’s mineral production exceeded $215,000,000—approximately four times the amount which Canadians paid to the federal government in income taxes.
The Province of Ontario made the spectacular contribution of almost $76,000,000 to the total. Ontario’s gold production, alone, accounted for close on $26,000,000.
This year, with the world returning to a gold basis Ontario miners expect considerable further impetus to gold-mining Northern Ontario.
Hon. Charles McCrea, minister of mines for the Province of Ontario, is greatly optimistic. “A quickened interest in our industry is manifesting itself far beyond Continued on page 69
Continued from page 37
the boundaries of the Province,” he said in a recent speech. He has a very definite warning for incoming capital, however. “I believe Ontario engineers are best qualified to develop our mineral reas, and wherever advice is solicited I will suggest to outside capital, con ultation with our engineers; thus the skill honesty and integrity of our engineering profession is at stake. Nothing can stop us if we maintain high ideals.”
Canada’s forests create wealth for Jack Canuck in two entrenched business channels.
There is the lumbering industry, the pioneer in the field and there is the vast modern structure known as the pulp and paper industry.
CANADA’S TRADE WITH
12 months ended March Imports from
Br. East Indies . Br. Guiana ..
Br. South Africa Br. West Africa Br. West Indies Hong Kong . . . Newfoundland . . New Zealand Other Br. Emp.
, 1925 Exports to $395,850,900 12,037,200 1,733,600
Total Empire . . $194,991,100 $475,140,200
Government figures estimate the primary forest production at $197,000,000 for 1923.
The lumber industry, alone is on a $100,000,000 per annum basis. Last year 3,200 saw mills operated, employed 30,000 persons and distributed $27,000,000 wages.
Under the stimulus of modern business pressure, the pulp and paper industry has become dominant. The founder of the first paper mill in Canada earned a government bounty of £100. To-day the industry substantially contributes to the progress of the Dominion. Half a billion dollars is invested.
Canada’s pulpwood resources are estimated at 1,418,000,000 cords of which 630,000,000 cords are believed to be available under present conditions.
The importance of the industry in our world commerce is evidenced by our export trade. Pulp and paper exports for the twelve months ended April, 1925, were valued at $143,000,000.
What does this mean to Canada’s industrial life, to the broadening progress of the Dominion?
The ultimate effect is incalculable. But the trade returns at least suggest the influence which forest creating wealth now bears and is likely to continue to bear to the future progress of Canada.
The Business of Furs and Fish
ROMANCE has been stripped from Canada’s fur industry! That is, romance has gone for all except those individuals who still believe that Canada consists entirely of scarlet-coated “Mounties,” trappers and icicles. The days of the intrepid trapper have been given place to efficiency methods. In short, Canada’s fur business has become a definite wealth-creating unit.
CANADA’S TRADE WITH BRITAIN
of our trade Imports Exports with U. K. from U. K. to U. K.
Agricultural 12 mos. ended March 1925 and vegetable
Animal Products Fibres & textiles Wood and paper Iron & products Non-fer. metals Non-met’lic min. Chem. products Miscellaneous ..
Total trade ____ $151,100,800 $395,850,900
Far cry, indeed, from the period when beaver skins were Canadian currency!
The government began to record the value of the annual fur production in 1881. That first year the value of pelts was $987,555. By 1910, the annual outturn had doubled. Ten years later the fur trade was placed upon a business
basis an international auction was established at Montreal. At the first auction, $5,057,000 of furs were sold; the year’s fur business returned in all $21,000,000.
Thus from a casual thing the fur business has become a definite cog in the nation’s economic machinery.
More or less stationary now upon a $60,000,000 per annum production basis, Canada’s fishing industry is a definitelyto-be-reckoned-with national asset. Like our farmers, our fifty-five thousand fishermen have elastic purses in such years as last year when the sixty million dollar level was reached.
The fishing industry as now set up is, in the main, an outgrowth of the last half century. In 1844 estimated value of the watch was $125,000. By 1860, however, the annual return had passed the million dollar mark. Ten years later it went to six millions and by 1878 to twelve million. In the early nineties it passed twenty millions and in 1911 topped thirty-four millions.
Among individual fish products cod and salmon long disputed Canadian primacy; if the record goes back to the very beginning of Canadian fishing the cod must be accepted as the most valuable. In the last fifteen years, however, the salmon has definitely taken the lead and the heavy pack and high prices of lobsters have more than sent cod down to third pi ce. British Columbia now occupies the provincial leadership in the fishing industry.
The New Wealth Producer
CANADIANS have, of late years, begun to take cognizance of a new unit of wealth production. Two years ago it produced $136,000,000 for Canada; last year $150,000,000. This year by all reasonable count, it will exceed $200,000,000 because it will be stimulated by organized effort. I refer to our tourist trade.
GROSS ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL REVIEW OF CANADA
Field crops . Farm animals
Dairy prod. . Fruits & veg. Poultry
and eggs . . Fur farming Maple prod. Tobacco .. Clover and grass seed
.. 1,389,289 1,350,096 1,453,368
Before the war, I understand, Switzerland counted it a satisfactory year when the tourist trade brought in $150,000,000. Canada then may be said to have started buoyantly with its new “industry.” This year provincial organizations will take hold of the idea; in short, we Canadians will capitalize our scenery and our hospitality—turn it over into an income-producing machine and let it work for us.
* * * *
These, then, are the forms which Jack Canuck’s wealth takes. These are his assets for banking credit at home and abroad—undeniably the staunchest security any nation can offer.
These are the reasons for an abiding confidence in the future—these and an inherent faith in Canadians, themselves for their year in and year out performance over a period of years.
It is because of a knowledge of Canada’s fundamentals that men like Otto H. Kahn, thoroughly versed in international economics, pledge their faith and offer their co-operation in the future upbuilding of the Dominion.
Canada is a store-house of precious minerals, of rich and rare furs, of great and glorious forests, of gigantic water forces, of acres, richly fertile, awaiting the tiller to fulfill the prophecy that Canada shall become the granary of the world.
“The greatness of Canada’s future is beyond question.”