A Peer of the Press
At eighteen, Hugh Graham started the Montreal Star on a few dollars—To-day Lord Atholstan is the Crusading Baron of the Fourth Estate
IN a deep, newly constructed basement on St. James Street, Montreal, a battery of giant newspaper presses are being installed, the last word in printing machinery. They will supplement the formidable battery, which in the press-room of the adjoining building, are daily pouring forth the editions of one of the greatest journals in the British Empire—The Montreal Star. On the day their first roar ascends, sitting in his office on the second floor of the old building will be found a silvery-haired gentleman whose countenance mocks his fourscore years. And I imagine that his though tswill be centred on a day sixty odd years ago, when, deprived of steam power by an irritated creditor, he walked an old white horse into a tiny press room and harnessed it to a farming contraption which slowly and groaningly turned his feeble press.
The possibility of Confederation was hardly being discussed when eightteen-year-old Hugh Graham, with less han a hundred dollars launched TheEvening Star. Today, Lord Atholstan is one of the mightiest forces in the fourth estate.
To the betterment of his less fortunate fellows he has contributed millions of dollars; his philanthropies, often unheard of by the public at large, are as startlingly great as they are modestly bestowed. His record as a Canadian citizen and a staunch Imperialist is as sterling as his aversion to the limelight is pronounced. I doubt whether his full story ever will be told. But at least this chapter will serve to indicate its drama.
Honor Thy Father
T.JUGH GRAHAM, the first Baron Atholstan in the peerage of the United Kingdom, was born on July 18, 1848, in the heart of the Eastern Townships, in the Province of Quebec, at the little town of what was then St. Michael’s, but is now Atholstan. He is the son of R. W. Graham, a landowner of the district, and his wife, Marion Gardner, both of them natives of Scotland. Lord Atholstan has that filial affection which is characteristic of the Scot. In his comfortable but modestly furnished office in the Montreal Star building, there hang portraits of notables along with scenes of foreign travel, but pride of place on his desk—the only photograph so honored—is a picture of his father. To the casual observer, Lord Atholstan is a man without sentiment. Of that maudlin kind which is best termed sentimentality, he is quite free, but no one who has ever managed to catch his shy glance at that photograph will ever charge him with neglect of that virtue that is based upon observance of the Fifth Commandment.
There are still men living in the Huntingdon district who can recall R. W. Graham. They remember him as a Scottish gentleman of the old school, kindly, shrewd, far-seeing, of tireless energy and stern integrity. There are stories still told of his sterling probity, and of his scorn of a subterfuge such as might keep a transaction within the letter of the law but not within its spirit. His word was his bond. It was in this atmosphere that Hugh Graham was brought up. As a boy he attended the Commissioners School at Hinchinbrooke, where his teacher was Joshua Breadner, father of R. W. Breadner, recently appointed Commissioner of Customs for Canada.
At the age of thirteen he entered the Huntingdon Academy, and remained there the greater part of two years. There he came under the tutelage of J. J. Maclaren, afterwards Judge Maclaren of Toronto. For his
teachers Hugh Graham has always had the highest regard, until the ties of affection, welded into something like veneration, were cut by death.
At school, Hugh Graham showed no signs of exceptional brilliance, although he excelled in two subjects—arithmetic and grammar. I think home influence had something to do with his success in mastering grammar, for his mother was a stickler for correct diction. The cult of the proper usage of the common rules of speech and writing has remained with him throughout life. To-day, Lord Atholstan abhors the vulgarity of slang and despises slovenly English. E ven after words have been adoped in current usage he looks at them with suspicion.
Hugh Graham was just fifteen years old when he first wetted his feet on the marge of the pool of journalism. At that age he entered the service of his uncle, Edmund Henry Parsons, a well-known journalist of his day, who published the Commercial Advertiser of Montreal, and afterwards the Evening Telegraph. Lord Atholstan is exacting in his standards of journalism. He has to his credit more than half a century of active journalistic work, and his regard for the work of his uncle in the editorial field is still deep and sincere. ‘One of the most brilliant editorial writers of his day in all Canada,’ was the epitome he gave of his uncle’s intellectual powers a few years ago when time might have been expected to have dimmed the lustre of his fame, or subsequent leader writers to have eclipsed that renown.
Hugh Graham neither expected nor received any special privileges when he entered the office of his uncle. He started as an office boy. In three months he had been promoted to be assistant bookkeeper and in six months he was head book-keeper and cashier.
One year after entering the employ of The Evening Telegraph, Graham was manager of the concern, in which post he remained for two years. During those years, at an age when many boys are still in High School, Hugh Graham was mastering all the intricacies of publishing. Even then he had a passion for ferreting out information which he stored in a retentive memory against the day when he could draw upon it to his own
The Star is Born
WHILE Hugh Gra ham was at the Telegraph, his success was not passing unnoticed. After two years’ service with his uncle, he received an offer from the late John Lowe and Brown Chamberlain to assume the business management of the Montreal Gazette Anxious to secure a wider experience, but with plans already laid for a still more ambitious career, Graham accepted. He had not been many months on the Gazette before he struck up a friendship with George T. Lanigan, also employed on that paper, and now best remembered as the author of that cameo of poetic absurdity, ‘The Ahkoond of Swat’ Lanigan was a genius. He had read widely and was interested in a score or more of different subjects. Above all, he was a brilliant descriptive writer at a time when there was far less scope for such work han there is to-day. Graham, with that intuitive judgment of men that has been one of the greatest factors of his success, divined this brilliance and hit upon the idea of founding a newspaper. Graham at that time was eighteen and Lanigan four years his senior. They were absolutely without capital. The daring of their venture may be excused by their youth.
Together they started The Evening Star. For a long time its existence was precarious. The business office was at 64 St. James Street, while there were tiny editorial rooms at 9 Ste. Therese Street. The price of The Evening Star was one cent, and it consisted of four pages of six columns each, or twenty-four columns in all. Of these, fourteen were filled with reading matter and ten were devoted to advertising. There was less than a hundred dollars in the treasury when The Evening Star began to shine in the world of journalism.
Lord Atholstan alone knows of the struggles that the young paper passed through in its cradle days. There is a tradition that so hard were the young owners pressed for funds to carry on their enterprise, that on more than one occasion the pennies handed over the counter by the news-boys were rushed over to the firm supplying the paper with an order for more sheets in order that the full issue might be printed.
After three years of trial and worry, Lanigan severed his connection with the paper and accepted a journalistic position in Chicago at a handsome remuneration. While Lanigan was glad to be relieved of the burdensome anxiety, the real cause of the severance of this partnership was an unbridgeable difference in a matter of policy. Lanigan, with the backing of a prominent Montreal capitalist, wanted to advocate annexation of the new country to the United States, primarily to attract attention to the paper, but Graham held out staunchly for the British connection. Nearly forty years later this issue was again brought up in acute form, and Hugh Graham and his newspaper became no small
(actor against Reciprocity in a federal campaign.
In spite of the (aet that they agreed to differ, Lanigan and Graham remained friends. Yet the severance of the partnership placed a heavy burden of debt on Graham’s shoulders, for he assumed all the crushing liabilities of the firm. The principal creditors came forward with an offer to give the struggling publisher a discharge and set him on his feet. Graham would have none of it. He restated the temptation. All his early training had tended to create an abhorrence of debt, and he declared that he could never live in Montreal if he once became a bankrupt. He ultimately paid every creditor in full, with interest, and the whirligig of time brought him a strange reversal. Many years afterwards,
Hugh Graham, risen to the possession of wealth that would have sounded like a fairy story in those struggling days, found an opportunity to give a strong helping .hand to his principal creditor of those early days when the latter had met with reverses and was faced with bankruptcy.
Struggles and Law-suits
"COR six long years the struggle con*• tinued. Often the situation looked hopeless, for it was a case of making bricks without straw. There was no working capital, and advertisers were slow in paying. There were constant law-suits and writs of attachment. Few’ newspapers have had a greater surfeit of law than The Star in the struggling days of its infancy. Before it was out of the wood and firmly established,
The Star had defended ninety-three libel suits, and of this number it is on record that only three were lost.
Credit was so low at one time that coal had to be bought by the bucketful and paper by the ream. Then came a crisis when a neighbor who had been supplying the plant with steam power by means of a shaft let through a hole in the wall, threatened to stop the supply unless arrears were immediately paid up. It was a time for quick action. A wire was sent to the country for a machine that had done yeoman service on many farms, and for a horse to operate it.
Both arrived, and for several days a big white horse was an important member on the payroll of The Star. The horse treads were set up in a corner of the press room, and the motive power walked sedately into the office every morning through the little counting house to the press room in which w’as erected a flat bed press capable of printing ‘on one side of the paper only.’ When the press stopped every few minutes to draw its fresh supply of white sheets, the horse, relieved of his labors, would see visions of green meadows and start off at a gallop, setting up a deafening noise. Dobbin was pensioned off after a short term of service and an engine was installed. Even then the troubles were not over, for the engine balked far more than the horse, and it was no uncommon thing in those days for a call for help to be sent out by the pressman which would be answered by the book-keeper, the clerk and the two reporters who comprised the bulk of the staff, manning the Ericsson machine and aiding in the work of getting out the paper by tugging at the piston rods when they refused to function.
Dogged determination and a fighting spirit that refused to accept defeat triumphed in the end, and, while it is difficult to fix definitely the turning point in the fortunes of The Star and its publisher, the election of 1878 saw the paper firmly established.
It was in 1874 that The Star first came out openly in favor of a tariff policy in a campaign for Canadian industry' and for the Canadian manufacturer. This was three years before Sir John A. Macdonald adopted the National Policy, and the great Conservative leader did not hesitate to give credit to The Star for its inception of the movement.
The endorsement of the National Policy in the general election of 1878 gave The Star considerable prestige, and from this date it made steady headway, although it had to compete with two old and well-established rivals, the Montreal Herald and the Montreal Witness.
But if The Star's freedom from financial worry dates from the day*3 of the National Policy, its journalistic prestige is of earlier vintage. Its first successes in the news columns came in 1870 during the Franco-German War. Its new3 service, despite the limitations of the
age, was excellent and reliable, and The Star won favor by its accuracy and by beating out its rivals on several history-making events.
Fought Small-pox Epidemic
"DUT Hugh Graham did something more than achieve business success and set his newspaper on a sound financial footing. No sooner was he relieved of his
worries and anxieties of publishing, than he set himself to use implements which he had fashioned by his own efforts in causes for the betterment of his less fortunate fellowmen and for the improvement of the city in which he had won success.
He returned from a visit in England in 1885 to find Montreal in the throes of an epidemic of small-pox. There were thousands of cases, and the civic authorities had thrown up their hands in despair while scores of ordinarily level-headed citizens were panicky. Sir Francis Hincks, former Minister of Finance, had been one of the first to succumb. Within twenty-four hours after he had set foot in his home city, Hugh Graham’s plans were laid.
There was at the time a physician in the city named Dr. Coderre who was conducting an anti-vaccination campaign with vigor and with success. Tens of thousands of Montrealers had never been vaccinated, and Dr. Coderre was able to convince these people that vaccination was dangerous and unclean. Matters came to a crisis when, after several threats, cities outside the province quarantined Montreal and refused to accept goods and merchandise originating there. There was no place to isolate the victims of the scourge, and many of the poorer people later fought against their relatives being sent to a fever hospital as strenuously as they fought vaccination.
The situation was very grave when Hugh Graham took the initiative and called a meeting of the leading men of the city to discuss plans and suggest a remedy Those present at that meeting were: Hon. Donald A. Smith (afterwards Lord Strathcona), Andrew F. Gault,
David Morrice, Andrew Robertson, Senator Ferrier, W. C. Macdonald (Sir William), Thomas G. Shaughnessy (Lord Shaughnessÿ), George Stephen (Lord Mount Stephen) William Wainwright, Henry Hogan, Richard White, John Kerry, D. G. Torrance, Walter Paul, Donald MacMaster, William Clendinning, Henry Lyman, George Craig, Arthur Boyer, James O’Brien and R. R. Grindley.
The meeting was held at the Star office and there were some strong speeches made protesting against the city’s inactivity in devising measures to check the epidemic. The aldermen seemed paralyzed, and there is no doubt that one of the most powerful restraints against any effective coping with the plague was the mischievous propaganda of Dr. Coderre. At the end of the meeting, Hugh Graham expressed the opinion that under no circumstances would the aldermen be moved to action. He proposed, therefore, that twenty of those present should march directly to the City Hall while the Council was in session and offer to take charge of the whole situation, putting up a bond of $20,000 as a guarantee of good faith for the accomplishment of their plans.
The Council asked for twenty minutes for deliberation. At the end of that time, while they rejected the proposal of the citizens to take full control, they permitted them to name six members to be added to the Board of Health. The members chosen for this work were George E. Desbarats, Richard White, Louis Perrault, W. Masterman, A. Levesque and the moving spirit of the affair, Hugh Graham.
Steps were immediately taken to secure a sufficient number of practitioners to vaccinate the stricken and to counteract the campaign of Dr. Coderre. At the first meeting of the newly organized Board of Health, the new members, inspired and urged into action by Hugh Graham, proposed most drastic remedial measures and a comprehensive scheme for vaccination and isolation. The regular members of the Board of Health took fright and deserted their posts, leaving the work to the new citizen members. Hugh Graham did not hesitate to go personally into houses and tenements where the sick lay in order to explain to the relatives of the patient how necessary vaccination and isolation were.
Isolation still remained the bugbear, and until there was proper isolation of the patients, it was obvious that there could be no expectation of eradicating the plague, or even keeping pace with it. There was no contagious diseases hospital at the time, and Hugh Graham, to whom had been specially allotted the duties of solving the isolation and hospital issue, cast a covetous eye on the exhibition buildings beyond Fletcher’s Field. To a request for the use of them, the exhibition authorities gave a point blank refusal, but this did not disturb Hugh Graham. He quickly got in touch with the authorities at Ottawa and, having explained the situation to them, received permission to call out the Victoria Rifles in order to obtain entrance into the exhibition grounds by force if necessary, on the score of public emergency.
No publicity was given to the affair, but the regiment left its headquarters quietly with its colonel, Fred Henshaw, at the head, accompanied by Graham acting as guide and representative of the city. These grounds covered an area of about twenty acres and occupied what is now Montreal North. Arrived there, they were met by the secretary of the exhibition, the late Sam Stevenson, who barred them entrance. Nothing daunted, Hugh Graham climbed over the gate and threw back the wooden bar. The soldiers filed in and set up their tents on the grounds. Within four hours the ambulances were bringing the patients from the city to be cared for by sisters and nurses and attended by a corps of physicians. By the next day the buildings were completely transformed into an isolation hospital. The plague was checked, thanks to the determination and courage of the man who engineered the assault— Hugh Graham.
I have related this incident at some length for two main reasons. In the first place, it shows an aspect of the man that is typical of many of his enterprises. It is often said of Lord Atholstan that his methods of attacking a problem are devious and subtle. While he is admittedly a master of strategy in the conduct of any campaign in which he is taking a leading part,
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I think his favorite plan of attack (certainly the one he generally adopts) is the assault direct. He likes to mobilize all his forces for a thrust, and then deliver sledge hammer blows in a frontal attack. Perhaps the very simplicity of his methods misleads his antagonists but I am sure he has won most of his victories by hammering away with thundering blows until he has found the weak spot in the opposing battlements. Once the breach is made, he goes straight forward to victory.
Then, again, the fight against smallpox was an issue to his liking. In matters of public health he fights with the zeal of a crusader. For years he campaigned to obtain a pure water supply to replace the polluted sewage which was bringing sickness and death to hundreds of houses. Later he waged unceasing warfare for a pure milk supply, and it was largely through his hammer blows in The Star, and by the organization of citizens he built up, that Montreal adopted pasteurization.
The Snow Gang
ANOTHER historic victory for this man who has been indefatigable in his fight for better living conditions and the improvement of his home city was the cleaning of St. James Street of snow and ice by an army of volunteer citizens who handled pick and shovel after the city had refused to carry out their obvious duties. St. James Street had become absolutely impassable, and Hugh Graham, unable to shake the aidermen from their lethargy, hit upon a plan to shame them into action. He inserted a ‘want ad.’ in The Star calling for volunteers, and men came to The Star office in answer to that appeal with picks and shovels and escorted by carts to remove the accumulation of a winter’s snow. Those who came were Hon. Henry Staines, ex-Minister of Public Works and Legislative Councillor; Hon. James McShane, ex-Minister of Public Works; John J. Curran, M.P.; John S. Hale, M.P., Henry Hogan, proprietor of St. Lawrence Hall; Donald MacMaster, M.P.; Dennis Barry; Lieut. Colonel Bond; Major Atkinson, Garrison Artillery; Lieut. Colonel Oswald, Garrison Artillery; Capt. George F. Lighthall; Ex-Alderman Chas. Alexander: John
Lovell, publisher; Dugald Graham, Vicepresident, City Improvement Association; Alfred Perry, Major Hector Prévost of the 65th Rifles; R. Rouillard, Inspector of Mines; Ex-Alderman J. C. Watson; Lieut. Colonel Theodore Lyman; William Stephen, brother of Lord Mount Stephen; Andrew McCulloch, stock-broker, and many others.
They set to work in grim earnest attacking the heaped up slush and snow opposite the entrance to The Star office. For three hours they laboured uncomplainingly at their tasks until the aidermen, who had got word of the affair, appeared on the scene and, humiliated by their lesson, promised to clean the streets. It was a complete surrender and a signal triumph.
Hugh Graham’s course of action in October, 1899, when the South African War broke out, was characteristic. For a time it seemed doubtful whether Canada would hasten to the assistance of the Motherland, even after news came that other parts of the Empire had volunteered. Then one day there appeared a cable despatch in The Star: ‘This morning the New Zealand troops marched through the streets of London, creating intense excitement.’ Hugh Graham had the cablegram re-wired to every commanding officer of the Canadian militia, to every mayor of cities and towns, adding the simple words: ‘Do you think Canada should move?’
The reply was swift and overwhelming and all but three favored sending troops from Canada. Such a wave of patriotic enthusiasm has seldom swept over a nation.
The Premier, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, still wavered. In the face of this unique expression of the popular will, he hesitated. How he suddenly changed his mind overnight is a matter of history. The reason for his change of front has never been disclosed, and there is only one man living who could throw light on the matter and he chooses silence at present.
Hugh Graham struck the iron while it was hot and followed up this demonstration by insuring the lives of the first regiment to go to the front for one million dollars. It was typical of the man that the name of their benefactor was withheld from the men, and it was only later that it leaked out by chance.
There is not space to record the political battles which Hugh Graham and The Star have fought for nearly sixty years. In the first forty years of The Star's history he organized over sixty civic campaigns, in fifty of which he was successful. Politically, he has al! ways been an Independent Conservj ative and a strong Imperialist in the true sense of the word. He has always I been a staunch patriot both to his home | city, to his Dominion and to the British Empire. He was one of the first to advocate an imperial trade preference as a definite plank of policy, and his admiration of the Tariff Reform movement in which Joseph Chamberlain was the leading spirit was well known. Hugh Graham has been from the first a strong Protectionist, even before the days when Sir John A. Macdonald advocated the National policy, and every movement for the conservation of the natural resources of the Dominion has commanded his sympathy and his enthusiastic support.
A Generous Giver
OF his philanthrophies, his public gifts ¡ and private charities, a volume might be written. I am sure Lord Atholstan has never advertised his name in any subscription list, or allowed his generosity to be blazoned in the press from any motive of self-glory or in boastfulness. When he has allowed his name to appear at the head of some subscription list, it has been done in order to help the cause to which he was giving, or to shame some acquaintances into more liberal support. He has never given grudgingly, and if the objective makes an appeal to him, he is lavish in his aid.
One day a friend lent him Valery Radot’s ‘Life of Pasteur.’ The book fascinated him, largely in its disclosures of ‘the discouraging attitude of governments and peoples during the process of his seven marvellous discoveries.’ as he himself wrote later. Moreover, his ever present interest in matters concerning public health made the world-wide fight against cancer a subject of particular interest to him. A few days after reading the work, he sent a letter to Sir Arthur Currie, Principal of McGill University, in which he offered a sum of $100,000 to ‘the graduate student of any recognized university who within five years discovered a medical treatment for the effective cure of cancer.’
The news of this offer was swiftly flashed across the Atlantic to England, and it prompted an immediate request from the Earl of Athlone, chairman of the Board of Governors of the Middlesex Hospital, asking him to change his offer so as to make this sum applicable to research tfork instead of as a reward for the discovery of a cure.
Lord Atholstan’s reply was character-
istic. ‘Your suggestion that I should change my offer cannot in fairness be acted upon . . . The offer for
the real discoverer of a medicinal cure still stands, but I donate a second one hundred thousand dollars to the work of research.’
Within the first twelve months there were 2,715 claims for the first gift of $100,000.
In his war against tuberculosis, which he has been conducting with especial vigor in recent years, Lord Atholstan organized the Anti-Tuberculosis and General Health League at a great mass meeting of citizens held on March 25, 1894. To this Lord Atholstan personally contributed at the first meeting over $100,000 for the work of this organization which is largely educational. He initiated, organized and gave continuous financial support to the Fresh Air Fund and presented the committee with a fine home on the banks of the Richelieu as a permanency. He has made liberal gifts to the hospitals. The Federation of Charities Campaign finds him year after year an enthusiastic supporter, while there are scores of organizations that have been helped by his generosity.
In 1898, he saved the beautiful St. James Methodist Church from going under the hammer when the Church authorities found themselves in financial difficulties and their place of worship in danger of being sold. When the great famine was raging in India in 1897, through The Star he set on foot a movement for raising a relief fund to which over one hundred thousand people contributed. During the hard winter of 1921-1922, he fed the hungry of his home city, when 191,152 meals were served in The Star building to unemployed men and women.
Recently, hearing casually that the Anglicans and the Catholics had endowed and were maintaining homes for ladies in need while those of the faith of which he has been a life-long adherent—the Presbyterians—had none, he remarked quietly: “This should be changed.”
Then and there was born the determination to establish such a place, and it culminated in the fitting out of a magnificent home. A brass name plate on the door bears the simple inscription: ‘My Mother’s Home.’
If the list of these public benevolences might be continued for several pages, the catalogue of his private charities would fill a volume, though the record will never appear to the human eye. I would quote a typical example of his unostentatious way of helping the deserving which came under my notice.
A hard-working woman who had no claims on the generosity of Lord Atholstan, save the appeal that she was a Scot and had fallen on evil days, was stricken with tuberculosis There was a possibility that she might be restored to health by treatment in the Laurentians. Lord Atholstan listened to the case and instantly decided. The woman should be sent to a sanitarium at his expense. For nearly three years the woman remained in the mountains until gradually she slipped out of life. The entire cost of her upkeep during those months, was borne by Lord Atholstan. There are literally hundreds of men who, if they would, could tell stories of his kindliness and practical help in their need.
What manner of man, then, is this who has hewn out his path to victory in a hundred fights, given away vast sums and won an indisputable place in Canada’s roster of men of honor?
In appearance, he is below the average height, erect as a guardsman in spite of his nearly four score years, and with an engaging smile. He has lived cleanly and temperately, and to-day is reaping the harvest of a self-imposed regularity of life carried to the point of abstemiousness.
His chief physical characteristic is his abounding vitality, hisself-renewir.gfreshness, which is reflected in his daily outlook, and in his actions. It is his boast that he has learned the secret of burning each day’s problems in the dusk of each evening, so that he can commence the struggle again on the following morning with renewed strength and new zest.
For nearly sixty years he has filled a leading place in journalism. During those years the world has undergone more radical changes than it has in any other period of which there is record. It has been Lord Atholstan’s task to keep in touch, and wherever possible to anticipate, the reactions of these changes in order to reflect them in his newspapers. He has been no armchair editor. To this day he takes a deep interest in all that appears in the press he controls. He still writes leading articles on subjects in which he is deeply interested, and they reveal that freshness of -view, that soundness of opinion that is characteristic of the man. He has a flair for news, and while he is sometimes the despair of his editors, no-one who has worked under his direction will deny that he is almost uncanny in his judgments of what will appeal to the popular taste. Articles that apparently broke every canon of journalism and would have been rejected by nine editors out of teh, have eventually proved the soundness of Lord Atholstan’s judgment.
Sanguine and buoyant by nature, Lord Atholstan never allows himself to be deflected from his course by false hopes or unwarranted optimism. He is indeed suspicious of the battle that is too easily won, and is alert to the dangers that lurk ‘when all men speak well of you.’
Above all, Lord Atholstan is essentially human. He has a keen sympathy for the under dog and for those who suffer. He has a keen sense of humor and dearly loves a joke. His smile is infectious, his laugh genial and disarming. His devotion to children is deep and sincere, especially for those handicapped by physical infirmity.
Lord Atholstan seldom speaks of himself, and when he refers to his own success it is with deprecatory comment that is whimsical in its disingenuousness. A man of few words, he employs speech rather for the purpose of getting the other man’s viewpoint than to reveal his own. He seldom proffers advice unasked, but he gives it squarely and unhesitatingly when it is solicited. He fights more with the broadsword than the rapier, and he is a veteran of a hundred battles in the municipal, provincial and federal fields. In these campaigns he has always fought under the banner of his citizenship or of his craft, and never as a politician. When the smoke of battle has cleared away, the heat and turmoil of the datare forgotten, the blows of his antagonist forgiven. It is not so much that he bears no personal animosity after the battle, as that he has washed away the struggle from the tablets of his memory. He never gloats in the hour of victory, nor whines in the day of defeat. The battle over, it is for him as if it had never been.