REVIEW of REVIEWS
Completion of Rhine-Danube Canal Will Further German Domination of the Balkans
HOW HITLER is planning to bring the states of Southeast Europe within the sphere of German domination is told in the British publication, Parade, after having been translated from the French publication, Clarté. The article states:
I Iitler is at work on a scheme, the success of which will mean the political and economic subjection of Southeast Europe. We refer to the Rhine-Danube Canal.
Hitler continues the work where William II stopped.
The Danube crosses Germany, it touches Czechoslovakia, and continues through Hungary, Jugoslavia, Bulgaria and Roumania, until it reaches the Black Sea, thus linking all the states of Southeast Europe, with the exception of Greece and Albania.
The Rhine-Danube Canal is now speedily being built and, according to an official decree of May, 1938, the construction is to be finished by 1946. This is to be the principal trade route for the Balkan countries. Germany hopes to bring the states of Southeast Europe still more closely within the sphere of her domination. She hopes to control their exports, taking them through her waterways to Germany’s neighbors and on to the North Sea. This construction plan has been demanded by the two dozen all-powerful masters of coal, iron and steel in the lower Rhine and Ruhr basin. The German Minister of National Transport says this new waterway is to facilitate the exchange of coal from the Ruhr with the iron ores and other raw materials from the Balkan countries.
Phe Canal will enable the German Steel Trust tosend into Austria, at a ridiculously low cost, coal and coke from the Ruhr mines needed by the iron foundries of the Alpine Mountain Company, owned by the Trust, which has, since last May, assumed control of the Danube Navigation Company at Vienna.
The Austrian and Slavonian iron ores will be drawn "upstream” as the Essen Nazumal Zeitung explains. The same journal discloses further implications when it goes on to say that the Rhine-Danube Canal route will offer the Roumanian mineral and oil industry cheap export facilities.
The quantity of jxdrol in demand for the Reich is more than half the production of Roumanian petrol; considering the consumption in Belgium, Holland, Austria. Switzerland and Czecho-Slovakia, the whole of the Roumanian yield might be absorbed by using a cheap method of transport.
In short. Goering plans to control the whole output of the Roumanian oil wells. Should England and France import from Southeastern Europe, then the trade route to Western Europe will be this German canal.
The Danube will assume immense strategical importance. A new fleet is being built to become a powerful weapon —in case of necessity to be used for "reasoning" with recalcitrant Danubian states.
The organization known as “ Kraft durch Freude” (Strength in Joy) is also helping
German imperialism. Traffic with the Balkan states will be busy; Hitler openly confesses that the tours organized by the "K.d.F.” are really of the greatest political imfxirtance, the object of which is to direct the current of Fascism; therefore “K.d.F.” will build boats for its "Danube to the Black Sea” trips. To appreciate this last piece of information in its full significance, we should remember that all "K.d.F.” boats are equipped for the transport of troops in war. Some of the soldiers sent to Spain went by these boats.
The Swastika intends to rule from the North Sea to the Black Sea. Trade returns show that 47 per cent of Bulgarian exports, 35 per cent Jugoslavian, 40.8 per cent I Iungarian, 27 per cent Roumanian go into Germany. German-invested capital in Jugoslavia advanced from fifteenth to fifth place. Since the beginning of the year the Germans have established ten new companies for exploiting natural wealth. In Slovenia, the most northerly Jugoslavian province bordering on Austria, 240 landed estates have passed into German hands. The Metallurgical Company for Business Expansion, a subsidiary of Krupp,
is working with a fund of £10,000,000.
Like swarms of grasshoppers, Nazi agitators are settling in Jugoslavia as language teachers, engineers, students, travellers. Cinemas are showing Nazi films, thanks to the founding of the Yugo-Tone Film Company.
The German company, Reemtsma, controls the most important industry of Bulgaria, which is tobacco.
Contact in Roumania comes through several German subsidiaries.
From the moment Hitler dominates the mouth of the Danube, he will have access to the Black Sea, and then he will exert pressure on Turkey.
In the neighborhood of the Soviet Ukraine, so long coveted by him, he will be opposite Batoum, where Soviet petrol arrives by pipe line. Should he dominate here, he could prevent all transit of goods from the Balkan States via the Black Sea or the Dardanelles to the rest of the world, and could thus control all produce right along the Danube to the mouth of the Rhine at Rotterdam, where German capital is quite at home, though hiding behind the best Dutch names!
Bicycle Lamp Generator
T'XESIGNED with a remote-drive feature that makes possible its mounting on the frame under the saddle, a new bicycle lamp generator yields a steady five volts at all speeds. Attached under the saddle, it is powered from the rear tire. The generator also tnav be mounted on the front
of the bike or in the tool and battery case with which many bicycles are equipped. Another feature is automatic lighting, enabling the rider to have light at all times, even when standing still. The generator lights both front and rear lamps. —Popular Mechanics.
Pictures Once Considered Impossible Are Note Alade With Improved Equiptnent
THE extraordinary degree to which cameras for amateur photographers have been improved during the past few years is the subject of an article in Popular Mechanics, in part as follows:
Just a few years ago, picture-taking was a midday hobby. Few amateurs tackled pictures in the early morning, late afternoon, or at night. If the sun wasn’t shining brightly, snapshots were just not made.
Today, all that is changed. Films are faster. Cameras have been improved. Inexpensive cameras are now equipped with lenses which a generation ago would have been considered quite fast. Ultra-fast films and lenses have turned night into day, photographically.
Nowadays, almost any amateur photographer can take pictures right round the clock. The owner of a super-speed miniature, for example, may find his chief pleasure in snapping pictures under adverse light conditions which demand the full lens speed of his precision camera. Similarly, the owner of an inexpensive camera may go out at night to explore snowcovered streets and byways, sparkling under the glow of street lamps, or raindrenched pavements which offer glistening reflections.
There is fascination in picture-taking at unusual hours. At the extremes of day— dawn, sunset and night—nature’s moods are most interesting. Mist, cloud and shadow give homely things a romantic quality that is missing in the glare of midday. But there is still another point that makes these “odd-hour” picture excursions a pleasure— most people think such pictures extremely hard to take, and they marvel at the skill of the amateur who takes them.
The truth is, "odd-hour” pictures are about as easy as ordinary snapshots. But any amateur with a camera that can be set for a time exposure can take pictures at any hour. And any amateur who owns a miniature camera with a lens as rapid as f.2.8 or f.2 can take snapshots with no more than the light of an ordinary match. For example, a snapshot of a man lighting his pipe in a dark room.
You need only learn how to judge the light to gauge exposures properly.
An exposure meter is a help. However, for most of us, the three-picture method will be best until we gain experience. Suppose we are picturing a dim scene which we estimate requires an exposure of four seconds with a box camera. We make three negatives—one with a four-second exposure, one with sixteen seconds, and one with thirty-two seconds. Then, if we have overestimated the light, we will still get one satisfactory negative. The latitude of modem films takes care of reasonable exposure errors.
A fast lens is an advantage in "oddhour” pictures of many types, particularly when a subject is likely to move. Obviously, with a lens twenty or thirty or sixtytimes as fast as that on an inexpensive camera, you can get many pictures that would otherwise be impracticable.
Jobs for Youth
Alan y O pportunities Exist For Well-trained and Corn petent Young Aien
THERE ARE many jobs in Canada waiting for young men as soon as they demonstrate the ability to do them, according to a recent editorial of the Financial Post, and there are many elderly men in business and in the professions who would like to retire as soon as young men can be trained to take over their jobs or responsibilities. The editorial follows:
Youth problems are much to the fore these days.
Political leaders, educationists, service organizations, churches and public-spirited citizens are rightly emphasizing the need for youth leadership if Canada is to harness the brains, enthusiasm, the genius and the brawn of our young men and women.
Two young Canadians who have emphasized youth problems during the week are Col. George Drew and C. George McCullagh. Both are young men, both paint an arresting picture of the need for giving youth a chance; the need for turning potential and wasting assets into productive manpower.
But there is another equally important side to the youth problem.
It is not sufficient that younger men be given a chance—it is of even greater importance that young men prove themselves worthy of appointments and promotion.
There are countless jobs ready and waiting to be tackled in Canada today whenever and wherever young men show the ability the initiative and the resourcefulness. to do them.
Even in the darkest days of a depression it is never literally true that there are only so many jobs to go around. Every young man who by his initiative and resource creates something not only makes employment for himself but often for others as well.
Promotion and success come from accomplishment.
There are many elderly men in business today who are prepared to retire and indeed would like to do so, but whose services are in constant demand because younger men have not shown their ability to take over their jobs or responsibilities.
Many leading surgeons and lawyers are seventy years of age or older. They hold no definite positions or appointments. They are in business for themselves and take what comes to them on the basis of their accomplishment and record. Younger men can and will supplant them but only as they create a feeling of confidence in themselves.
Youth leadership must place emphasis therefore on the need for self-help, the need for development and strengthening of moral fibres; the need for wider use and application of apprenticeship training, the need for making sure that youth knows how to stand on its own feet and make its own way in life no matter how difficult the path or the circumstances.
For example, a Canadian who would rank as one of the twelve leading businessmen in the country started out as a bank clerk at a very low salary. He found out that some small merchants could not afford to keep a bookkeeper. He arranged to keep their books after banking hours. He got a small fee for this work but he got something of much greater value through the application of initiative and resourcefulness to the work in hand.
It is a mistake to preach to youth that they are unfortunate in starting careers at times like these. There is a place today for every young man who will exercise qualities of resourcefulness and initiative such as most of today’s leaders had to exercise in their youth. The rewards that
are offered to those who succeed are probably greater than at any previous time.
And youth leadership must also recognize the need for attacking the problem at its source. Unless basic conditions in Canada are sound, unless budgets are balanced, confidence re-established, there will be no assurance of an increasing number of jobs.
The chief source of employment and opportunity in Canada is from companies, organizations, and from business large and small, operated along sound and profitable lines. Whenever excessive taxation and lack of confidence impair the ability of a concern to operate profitably, opportunities for present and future employment dry up.
These are the fundamentals of any youth leadership movement in Canada.
Einstein's Basic Idea is Illustrated by Means of a Ship Aloving on a River
IN REVIEWING a book entitled “Architects of Ideas” by Ernest Trattner, Public Opinion has something to say about Einstein’s theory of relativity which may help the public to understand what it is all about:
The separation of time and space is a misleading theory because they profoundly interpenetrate. To isolate them is to mutilate one’s thinking about them. For time and space are not separate things; they are relative to each other, constituent elements in a deeper synthesis. Thus time is as much the essence of things as space. Time is not something extra and superadded to things in their behavior; it is basic to their constitution. The world, therefore, does not possess three dimensions but four. Time is the fourth dimension.
Examine for a moment the following illustration. An accident, let us say, occurred at Forty-second Street (this is one dimension). To say that it happened at ; Forty-second and Broadway is to add a second dimension.
When it is further stated that the accident took place in the subway—that gives a third dimension. And to declare that it took place at two o’clock last Tuesday afternoon gives us the fourth dimension. Thus the accident happened in “space-time” on a four-dimensional basis; length, breadth, depth, and time. By means of the space-time system, any event, anywhere, any time, may be indexed and filed away.
Einstein laid hold of the idea, Mr. Trattner goes on to say, that everything is measured by, or considered relative to. something else; that our concepts of absolute time, space, motion are groundless for the very simple reason that man does not possess any immovable or unchangeable standard. By giving these thoughts a coherent mathematical basis he was able to formulate a particular theory which co-ordinates and satisfies the ob¡ served laws of nature and accounts for discrepancies which have long troubled the scientists . . .
Imagine you are on a ship moving down the Hudson River. At exactly halfw-ay between the bow and the stern you roll two balls down the deck at the same time with the same strength. One ball you roll forward, the other aft. It is obvious that the first ball will arrive at the bow of the ship at about the same time that the second ball arives at the stem.
So far as you are concerned, the balls travelled at the same speed. But to a man on the shore observing your rolling, the speed of the balls would not be the same for him as it was for you. The man on the shore would say that the ball w'hich j rolled forward moved faster than the ball j which rolled aft.
He would say that the speed of the first ball was its original speed plus the speed of the ship, and the speed of the other ball was the original speed minus the speed of the ship. Both you and he would be right. The difference depends on the body referred to for measurement. In your case it was the ship, in his the shore.
From this relativity of motion, or more j exactly of uniform motion, there follows j the relativity of distances between points in space. Suppose you are on a train and decide to walk forward to the dining car. You start at one moment, and a few minutes later you arrive at your table in the diner. What is the distance you have moved?
It depends on how you measure it. If you measure it relatively to the train it will be a rather short distance, perhaps 350 ; feet. If you measure the distance travelled j with respect to the earth it would be an ! entirely different quantity, which depends j on the speed of the train. Now whether j you walked 350 feet or, say, a mile depends on your frame of reference. Relatively to the train you walked 350 feet; relative to the earth you covered a mile . .
We ordinarily imagine all processes to j take place in the world according to a simple time. But time is relative—even I so-called “simultaneous” events. There is i no general world time, but only times for I each observer. Different times can be I mathematically related to each other only 1 by taking into account the relative motion j of the observers. Each observer has his I own time, and therefore two events at ’ different places which are simultaneous for j one observer are not so for another.
In Wartime it Would Not Be Nearly so Great as Some Alarmists Have Predicted
AGAS attack on a civilian population can never be so dangerous as some alarmists have led us to believe, states James Kendall in a book entitled “Breathe Freely,” which has been condensed by the Reader’s Digest. We are told that:
For some time past, authors have been j deluging the public with descriptions of j the horrible slaughter that will take place ; in the next war when the civilian popula| tion of big cities is showered with gas S from aerial bombs and drenched with j the “Dew of Death” by swarms of air! planes. We hear of mysterious new gases ! which will pass through any mask. As a j qualified chemist, I can assure you that j these alarmist nightmares are about 100 per cent wrong.
No new poison gases of primary importj anee have been discovered recently, or are likely to be. Scientists had an extensive ■ knowledge of the poisoning power of j chemicals long before the last war (chlorine ! was discovered in 1774; phosgene in 1812; j mustard gas in 1854); and no chemist expects that any new toxic substance I discovered in this generation will be superior to mustard gas. Even if it were 1 discovered, a chemical much more toxic I than mustard would be too dangerous to manufacture on a large scale.
Nor need we fear a gas that will pene' trate gas masks. The active charcoal in ! masks as made today and they have been I greatly improved since 1918absorbs the molecules of any heavy vapor. It will also hold back the molecules of lighter vapors.
I such as chlorine and phosgene, for a I limited period. Soda-lime, mixed with the i charcoal, provides a more protracted 1 defense against these substances. Thus the filter material can block the particles j of any smoke.
The alarmist regards the success of an air raid on a city like London as inevitable.
¡ He sees a huge armada of bombing planes
loosing thousands of tons of gas on a defenseless and panic-stricken population. “London for several days will be one vast racing Bedlam, the hospitals will be stormed, traffic will cease, the city will be a pandemonium,” writes one cheerful general. “The Government will be swept away by an avalanche of terror. Then will the enemy dictate his terms, which will be grasped at like a straw by a drowning man.”
The fact is that gas defense has so far outstripped offense that the only significant casualties will be among those taken entirely by surprise.
Here is a more reasonable picture of a raid on London:
War threatens and the Government has issued a gas mask to every citizen. Children carry them to school, men take them to work. Suddenly reports come that a large fleet of planes is approaching England. Immediately warning is sent out for everybody to take shelter indoors, ready to put on their masks as soon as a prearranged signal is sounded.
Half an hour later great quantities of mustard gas (there is nothing worse, remember) are dropped on the metropolis. The streets are empty, and except where a bomb strikes a house directly or explodes close enough to break a window, practically nobody indoors notices any effects from the gas at all. Within a few minutes decontamination squads are neutralizing the liquid mess scattered around the spot where each gas bomb fell. An hour afterward, the signal is given for people to take off their masks. They still remain indoors, however, until the “All Clear” signal is sounded in their particular area. Within a few hours, London becomes normal.
The newspapers announce later that several hundred people, mostly very young children and mostly very slightly affected by gas, have been taken to hospitals. The 20 or 30 deaths reported are all due to large bomb splinters.
Lantastic also is the alarmists’ “Dew of Death.” Without warning a squadron of planes cruises over a metropolis at a great height, spraying out gas so that it falls as an imperceptible dew and blasts everything with which it comes in contact. Qualified experts unanimously state that the spraying of toxic liquids must be carried out at a very low altitudenot more than 300 feet—an impossibility if the city has any air defense at all.
Alarmists love to quote the fact that one ton of mustard gas is sufficient to kill 45.000,000 people. That would be true only if the 45,000,000 all stood in line ready to take a dose of it. A steam roller could flatten out all the inhabitants of London if they lay down in rows in front of it. But nobody panics at the sight of a steamroller.
Seven tons of phosgene could establish a lethal concentration over a circular area of 500 yards in diameter and 16 feet high— under ideal conditions of a level field and no wind. But what casualties might be expected in a city from a phosgene cloud of this size? In May, 1928, an explosion in Hamburg liberated 11 tons of phosgene. About a dozen people were killed, another dozen injured and 160 were slightly affected. The Hamburg inhabitants had no warning.
Ixmdon's fears of German gas attacks in a future conflict are further unfounded, since Germany will never again enjoy the advantage which she held until 1918 of a six-months start in the use of chemical warfare. Hence her incentive to employ poison gases would practically disappear, especially when the certainty of retaliation was considered.
The danger from gas is not so much the poison itself but the panic which it arouses. The object of an enemy gas attack on a city is not primarily the killing of civilians but the desire to drive them into hysteria, so they will clamor for peace at any price. Therefore, the one vital point to be borne in mind by the public before, during, and after gas raids would be: Don't be stampeded into panic.