"MICE AND MEN"—AND MILK!
A Matter of Vital Importance to Humanity
ARTHUR G CLARK
THIS is not a comparison between mice and men, but some natural laws which affect mice also affect men. Almost everyone knows what so often happens to “the best laid plans of mice and men,” but what of the milk?
You might think that this is the joker, but there is no joker in this part of my caption, and although many more or less eminent dietitians advocate the “chewing” of milk I’m not going to tell you that that’s what you bite on, as is so often said of the piece of pie that is frequently appended to an otherwise complete conundrum.
I want to hold your attention to those cute little mice for a while to illustrate the wonders of the appendage to my caption— milk, as the most marvellous provision of Dame Nature for the nourishment of the aforementioned men.
Ever since I was an occupant of the nursery I have been greatly puzzled about some features of that funny old nursery rhyme of “The Three Blind Mice,” which has amused the children of so many generations. The principal mystery was—how did they become blind?
It is only recently that I have learned the reason, and you will probably be much surprised to know that a great secret of vital importance to you and to all of us who are members of the human race has been uncovered in the unfolding of this reason.
I have also discovered that those three blind mice were pretty wise mice in attempting to chase that old farmer’s wife, for in view of this new knowledge I feel that there was considerable real, genuine “method in their madness,” but on the other hand, if they had simply waited for a more opportune time to carry out their plan when the farmer’s wife was not present, or at least was at a safe distance from the object of their great desire, said plan would not have gone “agley.” As a matter of fact they were undoubtedly wise to a secret that the men have only recently learned. They were after that farmer’s milk, cream and cheese. You know that rats and mice have had a great failing for cheese and dairy dishes about as far back as history goes, and this failing has led to their untimely end on more’than one occasion. That good old wife was so vigilant that they were deprived of those foods so long that they had become blind.
How’s that, you will probably ask.
Well, for the past few years scientists and dietitians have been giving considerable study to foods used for human consumption with a view to ascertaining their relative values from the standpoint of their nutriment and their energy and heat producing qualities.
Perhaps the most exhaustive research work has been
done by Dr. E. V. McCollum of the School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University.
Recognizing the great need for knowledge of nutrition, especially because of certain conditions obtaining to-day throughout the world largely on account of the war, Dr. McCollum and others have been experimenting with all kinds of foods, and instead of trying them on the dog as they do at home, these men have been using rats, mice, rabbits, cattle, etc., and by the elimination or inclusion of certain foods have been able to note very accurately the resulting conditions of the animals used in the experiments.
One of the chief points brought out in these experiments, lasting over a period of several years, is the recognition of certain mysterious elements which have been found to be absolutely essential to growth, and if entirely eliminated from one’s diet there can be no growth, there is loss of hair, the eyes become diseased, and if the elimination of this essential is much prolonged total blindness followed by death is the result.
Now you can see what made those three mice blind and why they were so anxious to get some of the good wife’s cream and cheese so that their blindness might be cured, for it has been further proven that if these elements were replaced in the diet before the conditions had gone too far the subjects of
the experiments began to grow, the hair filled in, the eyes improved and became normal and blindness and death were prevented.
One of these mysterious substances is associated with certain fats, and is found more abundantly in butter fat, egg yolk fats and the fats of glandular organs such as liver and kidney, but is absent in fats of a vegetable origin. It is found more abundantly in the butter fat of milk than in any other article of food.
In every experiment where those foods containing this element were eliminated from the diet of these animals the result was the immediate arrest of growth, loss of hair and the diseased condition of the eyes, and where such foods were replaced a prompt reversal of the conditions was evidenced.
In view of these very carefully conducted and thoroughly exhaustive experiments, as well as the minute recording of the results, we cannot evade the advisability, and perhaps the absolute necessity, of every person receiving their proper quota of milk in order that growth, health and bodily repair may be adequately maintained.
Indeed, those who are well informed on the subject claim that every person should drink daily a quart of good milk, or should consume its equivalent in some form of milk. Dishes in which milk is used largely as an ingredient should be more freely served at every table in the land every day so that a sufficient percentage of those very necessary elements may enter into our diet.
The housewives who will accept and appreciate the efforts of the scientists who have given practically their entire time to the study of nutrition for the benefit of the public weal, without further remuneration than that they have served humanity well, will give more attention to the preparation of their daily menus that the meals which they serve in their homes will properly pre-
serve the health of their families. Milk, more milk, is the conclusion.
Many physicians of prominence are prescribing a milk diet in all chronic ailments of almost any nature with wonderful results. Many patients are put on an exclusive milk diet and the results have been astounding. Many articles are being published under such captions as, “The Miracle of Milk,” and “The WTonders of Milk,” all of which go to show that the true value of milk as a regular diet for both young and old is at last being recognized. Milk has long been the standby in wasting diseases. If it can do such wonders to those who are ill it may also be assumed that it is a valuable food for those who are apparently in good health.
It would be appropriate to quote here a tribute to the cow as expressed by Governor Lowden of Illinois in a pamphlet issued by the Illinois Department of Agriculture:
“The cow is a most wonderful laboratory.
She takes the grasses of the pasture and the roughage of the field and converts them into the most perfect food for man. In that food there is a mysterious something which scientists have found essential to the highest health of the human race and which can be found nowhere else. Men have sought for centuries the fabled fountain of youth. The nearest approach to that fountain which has yet been discovered is the udder of the cow.”
The Milk Problem
HOW to maintain an adequate supply of pure milk in the greater cities has been a perplexing problem the world over for many years. Instead of approaching a solution it seems that it is becoming a greater problem than ever. As the growth of the cities continues it is necessary to go farther afield to obtain a sufficient quantity of milk to meet the demands. Here the problem of transportation becomes more and more difficult, especially during the winter months when the railways are frequently blocked by snows, many times causing milk famines and consequent great suffering for babies and persons who are ill or convalescing.
Not only in the cities do we find the milk problem. Think of the many isolated settlements in arctic and tropical climates where it is impossible to keep cows; the lumber camps, mining camps, and fur trading stations often far removed from any fresh milk supply; army camps that must be maintained on the farthest frontiers of civilization or at points which are out of easy reach of their base of supplies for fresh foods. Think of the sailors
that travel the seas on slow sailing vessels which often take weeks or months to reach their destinations.
Are all of these to be deprived of the great food that Nature has so abundantly endowed with her great secret of life-giving qualities? Are they consequently to gradually waste away, become blind and eventually die because a source of fresh milk supply is not readily available?
People living under these conditions in the past have suffered from the most dreadful diseases which were little understood, such as pellagra, beri-beri, etc., which by the newer knowledge of nutrition have been found to be due to faulty diet deficient in those elements which are now recognized as being so necessary to growth and maintenance of good health.
In 1851 Gail Borden, who may well be considered the pioneer milk specialist, sailed to London to exhibit at The Great International Exposition held there in that year a concentrated food product invented and manufactured by him. He was awarded The Great Council Medal, and his product, which was a combination of beef extract and flour, kneaded together, baked hard and then ground, was declared to be the most excellent and suitable product to meet the very conditions of isolation above referred to.
He sailed on a slow vessel on which cows were kept to supply milk to the
passengers and crew. There were many babies on the ship, and most of them were taken ¡11 and some died before ! he end of the voyage.
Now Gail Borden had a wonderfully big heart, and this suffering distressed him greatly, although it was a common sight to those who frequented the seas.
Mr. Borden had a naturally inventive turn of mind, and wherever he saw a condition that was not. right he would set about finding a solution of the problem. After turning this matter over in his mind he went to the captain of the ship and told him that some day he was going to put up milk ¡ti concentrated form in cans so that it. might be taken to any quarter of the earth and would keep indefinitely.
The captain thought that Mr. Borden was a mere dreamer, a visionary, and told him so. The very idea of putting such a delicate article of food as milk in a can and shipping it. hundreds and thousands of miles and expect it to keep pure and sweet? Why, the t,bought was preposterous.
But when Gail Borden got an idea into his mind it, seems as though he held onto it with a tenacity that would never permit him to let go, even when it appeared that he was more than defeated. Necessity was a sufficiently good mother for him to tie his faith to.
Shortly after his return tie began to experiment with the préservât ion of milk. His experiments lasted for several years, and he finally evolved the process of reducing milk in volume by boiling it in a vacuum at a low temperature, thus removing a large portion of the water contained in the natural milk. This proved to be highly successful and after perfecting the process he was awarded patents covering it in Great Britain and America, and thus was the great milk problem throughout, the world, even in isolated settlements, for expeditions into unexplored countries and upon the seas, made solvable. These patents were obtained in 1856. and a year later he began the manufacture of condensed milk on a commercial basis.
The Purity of Milk is Essential
MR. BORDEN early recognized the necessity of purity and quality of the milk at its source. Il e a c c o r d ingly formulated a code
regulating the production and handling of the milk not only from the cow tn the can, but. his regulations included frequent examination of the cows by trained veterinarians, the proper feeding to produce the finest quality of milk; he insisted upon thoroughly sanitary conditions in the cow barns and milk houses; he required that all of t h e utensils for holding milk should be immediately and completely sterilized by live steam after using.
He, in short., formulated the first code of regulations governing the production of pure milk, which was so complete and thorough that it has become the model upon which have been based the regulations and laws of boards of health, of municipalities, of provinces and of states.
Mr. Borden’s invention has made it possible not only for those in isolated localities to be provided with sufficient quantities of Nature’s wonderful and all important food, but no family nor person in the cities need ever suffer from milk famines resulting from storms or other causes. If everyone knew how well the various milk products of the company which the name of that pioneer in the milk field meet the requirements and necessities of the household they would always have a supply on hand for such emergencies. It would, however, be far wiser for many who are unable to obtain a suitable supply of milk of dependable purity and quality to make the canned article their regular source of supply. There is no milk requirement of the kitchen, the table or the nursery that cannot be suitably and satisfactorily supplied by the Borden canned products, which includes Condensed Milk, which is merely pure cow’s milk with part of the water removed and a certain amount of refined granulated sugar added to preserve it; Evaporated Milk, which is the pure milk with part of the water removed and nothing whatsoever added, preserved by sterilization after the can is hermetically sealed; Malted Milk, which is prepared from pure milk malted with wheat and barley malt by a secret process; Condensed Coffee, a combination of milk, sugar and coffee, a spoonful of which dissolved in a cup of hot water makes a delicious cup of. coffee in a moment; Condensed Cocoa, a c< mbination of cocoa, milk and sugar.
In all of these products all of the butter fat originally
supplied by the cow is retained in the finished product. Consequently the elements essential to growth and maintenance of health are available in all of these products.
'T'HE business left by Gail Borden, started in 1857, has A grown wonderfully in Canada, and the products of The Borden Company, Ltd., are available throughout the Dominion. Large factories are in operation at Truro, Nova Scotia; Huntingdon, Quebec; Tillsonburg, Norwich and Ingersoll, Ontario, and South Sumas, B.C.
The oldest of these plants is the one at Truro, Nova Scotia, the cradle of the condensed milk business in Canada, started in 1883 by Mr. Charles Graham, well and favorably
From the Cow to the Can
npO produce pure, clean milk, the first requisite is that the cows be perfectly healthy, and to be kept healthy they must be kept clean and housed in clean, well-lighted and ventilated barns; the barnyards must be kept clean, the feed must be carefully selected in order that a good, wholesome, rich milk may be produced, and the milking must be done with clean, dry hands.
Immediately after being drawn from the cows the milk must be taken to the “milk house,” which is separated from the cow-barn or any other building, where it is cooled by placing the cans in a tank of cold running water.
known in that locality. At that time there was no railway through Western Canada to the Pacific Coast, although there was considerable population, and this made it very difficult to transport the products into the Western provinces. There being no dairies there was a good and ready market for condensed milk, or the “tin cow” as it was called in the pioneer days. This market enlarged greatly during and after the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Borden’s Condensed Milk early found its way to the Klondike and reached the North Pole with Peary. In fact, it materially helped to make these expeditions possible. Many previous expeditions into the arctic circle had failed because of an inadequate supply of good and proper food with which to sustain the lives of those participating therein.
Cleanliness is the first thought at every Borden plant, where the milk is delivered during the early morning, and all dairymen are required to have the cans thoroughly covered with heavy canvas to protect them from the heat of the sun and from dust. The milk is delivered at one door of the “receiving room,” tested for flavor, temperature, butter-fat content, etc., and weighed. The cans are immediately rinsed and scrubbed with a strong cleansing solution, and then sterilized with live steam and returned to the dairyman at the second door, as show in the factory
The milk after passing through the receiving room isrun into large copper tanks in which the sugar is mixed with the milk if the latter is to be made into Condensed Milk. If to be evaporated, it is simply heated here before entering the vacuum or condensing pans. The vacuum process of condensing milk is the great invention of Gail Borden, which only his wonderful perseverance brought to success in the early fifties. Around this invention the great Borden Company has been developed.
The making of the cans in which Borden’s milk products are packed is not entrusted to outside manufacturers. The Borden Condenseries are equipped with complete and thoroughly up-to-date can manufacturing departments.
The cans, having been sterilized during the process of making, are passed by means of chain carriers to the filling machines, where they are automatically filled. The filled cans then pass on and are hermetically sealed. The filling and sealing of the cans are done by thoroughly sanitary methods, cleanliness being the constant watchword during the entire process of manufacture and packing of Borden’sMilk Products.
From the filling and sealing room the cans of milk go to the labelling machines, where the labels are attached automatically. The cans are then placed in wooden cases and are ready for shipment.
Rapid Strides of the Milk Industry COMPARATIVELY few in Canada ^ are aware of the rapid strides made by the Condensed Milk industry or know of the present magnitude of this branch of the dairy business. According to the report of the Department of Agriculture the value of Condensed and Evaporated Milk manufactured in Canada in 1919 reached $20,000,000 and represented by over 100,000,000 pounds of finished product. -There are now some fifteen factories scattered throughout Canada. The pioneer plant was located at Truro in 1883 and is still in operation.
Oxford County, Ontario, is frequently referred to as the “world’s best dairying district.” We know of no other centre which produces a similar quantity of cheese, butter, condensed and evaporated milk. H There is a trio of modern condenseries located in the midst of this rich district (at Tillsonburg, Norwich and Ingersoll), equipped with the most sanitary milk-handling utensils known to science. The entire milk supply comes from dairy farmers nearby, whose herds are all under the strictest supervision of experts. The greatest care is taken with the cows, barns, dairies, etc. Inspectors from those factories regularly visit each dairy and every fanner is required to constantly maintain the highest standard of cleanliness and healthiness. Even the feeding is on a scientific basis, and no milk is accepted that does not pass the severest test as to quality, butterfat, nutrients, temperature and in every other particular. This -milk supply, coming as it does from such well-regulate d sources and the best dairy animals, is bound to be of full food value and of even quality without variation.
When we consider the actual food value in milk compared with other products we can then see the reason for the rapid development in the production of canned milk. When one dollar is spent for any of the following goods at prices named, milk at fifteen cents a quart is the cheapest.
Comparative Food Values
Milk .............. 15c per quart ______
Butter ............. 75c per pound —
Cheese............. 50c “ “ -
Canned Beans...... 15c " “ - -—
Ham .............. 40c “ #4 --——
Ice-Cream ......... 40c per quart - ■
Beef-Steak ......... 35c per pound —— ■
Eggrs .............. 60c per dozen ————
Further, there is an additional food substance found in milk products that promotes growth which is not found in any other foods except eggs and certain leaves. It is the presence of this vital food substance in milk which places it in a class by itself as a food absolutely necessary for the growth of the child and the health of the adult.
Recently a New York Medical Journal invited a discussion as to the value of Condensed Milk for infant feeding. We mention this fact to substantiate our statement that a large portion of the community are unfamiliar with the uses for Condensed Milk, and even among physician:; there is a lack of complete knowledge, but the consensus of opinion with eminent physicians is that condensed milk as substitute for mother’s milk in infant feeding has found a distinct, useful place, and after nature’s own supply it is entitled to first place.
It is the experience of the writer that children nourished with Condensed Milk thrive better and have better appearance than those nourished on other infant foods, or even to those fed with fresh milk. In some cases fresh milk diluted with barley decoctions and lime water has caused vomiting, and this ceased after feeding with diluted Condensed Milk.
Most people are aware that there is a difference between Condensed Milk and Evaporated Milk, but many are unable to state just what is the difference. Condensed Milk is preserved by the addition of granulated sugar. The system was inaugurated by Mr. Gail Borden in the early fifties, which marked the beginning of a scientific handling of milk.
Condensed milk can be used to advantage in all cooking where milk and sugar are required.
Evaporated Milk is prepared from pure rich cow’s milk and condensed by a process whereby only water is removed and nothing added.
It is preserved by sterilization only, which assures the keeping qualities as long as the can remains unopened.
The housewife finds it a wonderful convenience to use milk sealed and prepared in the Borden Way.
The canned milk industry is one which should interest every citizen of Canada, as it is an important outlet for
fine dairies which are so plentiful throughout the country. Besides as an article of diet there is nothing that can take the place of pure milk. For infants it is indispensable; for invalids and nursing mothers it affords nourishment and health-giving powers, while with the aged and infirm it is easily and perfectly assimilated, lending strength and renewed vigor. There is no form in which milk can be handled with such safety as when prepared as Evaporated Milk (unsweetened) or Condensed Milk. The claim of purity and healthfulness is justified by the numerous endorsements those products receive from the leading physicians and chemists everywhere. The popularity of Borden’s Milk has led to it being referred to as “Canada’s National Milk.”
By recent experiments we have learned the secret of good health and how to live long and keep well. We must be sure to obtain our daily supply of the one food that holds the secret in anything like abundant quantities. There is no need that anyone be deprived of this essential to life as it is available in every part of the Dominion in quantities so that everyone may have his just share of Nature’s elixir of life. The question is, are we going to profit by this “Newer Knowledge of Nutrition,” and become a race of supermen?
“What do you say?”