WILL CANADA GO YELLOW?
Second article dealing with this important and interesting topic
ANY survey such as that under discussion should recognize that while Chinese and Japanese are both Oriental, there is a great difference in their methods.
Perhaps because China remains w i t hout national solidarity or unity being n o minally governed from Pekin, by central authority, but in reality controlled by dominant men and groups in each province, its people have always lacked self-assertion, both officially and individually. In fifty years of Chinese British Columbia heard less of alien rights than in ten of Japanese. In the main the Chinaman was willing either to confine himself to trades and callings which whites neglected, or to work in a more or less servile or menial relationship. If he aspired, it was in activities within his own land.
McGill students of a few years ago well remember Peter Hing. Peter was a native of Victoria and I first met him coming out of a mission in the city mentioned. He said he was going to school and when I inquired how far on he was, he replied in perfectly good English: “Third year, High.” He added that he proposed going to McGill and completing a course in law. To the suggestion that a qualified Chinese lawyer would do well on the Canadian coast he shook his head positively. He would not practise in this country where a Chinese lawyer would be more or less of an anomaly, and where he could not gain the recognition he sought. He talked of China’s need, and of the recognition she was giving young men who took university training abroad. He seemed to look to the consular service for promotion.
Peter attended McGill where his happy genial ways made of him a great favorite. He graduated and returned to China. Soon he became Chief Justice of one of the Chinese provinces. If a McGill man in his year visits Hong Kong he is fairly sure of a banquet at the jurist’s expense. Peter is reputed to be amassing wealth by commercial operations.
Peter’s name is mentioned as typical, but there are many young Chinese who reflected the same spirit. Of these there occurs to memory the name of Lim Bang, who with his brothers and father conducted a large commercial business in British Columbia and China and amassed great wealth without coming under the notice of more than a limited few. Lee Mong Kow was for a quarter of a century the cleverest man in the Canadian Custom Service at Victoria.
Japanese, of similar talent or wealth, would have left a distinct impress on the province—doubtless would have insisted on much in the form of recognition that the Chinese never asked.
A distinct difference appears in the official representation of the two countries. A majority of Japanese consuls graduate from the High Commercial College at Kobe and at Tokio. The present consul at Vancouver, Hon. Kadsu Saito, is a graduate of the agricultural college at Satporo. His predecessor left the service to take the management of an iron mine in his native country. Though not unaccomplished these Japanese gentlemen are primarily interested in trade. On the other hand, Hon. Koliang Yih, the Chinese consul, is a Cornell man, a charming conversationalist, with a mastery of English forms and idioms that is amazing. Many capital stories of his readiness in our involved tongue, are told, but none better than his retort on a railroad train to a smart New Englander’s inquiry: “Which ’ese,
Chinese or Japanese?” Mr. Yih’s suave smile disarmed his interlocutor, when after admitting his nationality the consul countered with “Which key—Yankee or monkey?”
The Case for Political Rights
THE difference in the two races finds illustration in a demand from the Japanese that full citizenship rights be accorded them. They build up an ingenious ease. Starting with the Anglo-Saxon dictum that there shall be no taxation without representation, they point to a discrimination between the European and the Asiatic immigrant in this particular, inasmuch as the latter is
given only partial naturalization in British Columbia, being allowed to own property, to do business, and to pay taxes—but not to enjoy political rights. ^
They complain of British Columbia legislation, permitting its government to insert as a term of its contracts and leases, conferring rights and concessions in respect of public land belonging to the province, including the timber and water thereon and the mineral therein, a provision that no Japanese shall be employed in or about such premises.
Supplementary to this fundamental claim our new citizens present a case establishing their right to be regarded as good citizens. They insist that they have kept within the terms of the gentleman’s agreement restricting immigration to not more than 400 yearly. They remind Canadians generally of their part in the Great War, and British Columbians in particular of the protection their warships gave our western coasts at a critical period in that struggle. They recall that they formed, drilled, financed, and maintained a battalion of 250 men in Van-
Formerly Managing Editor of Vancouver World
couver for five months when, recognition being denied them at Ottawa, many enlisted privately. They point with pardonable pride to the fact that of 200 who went overseas 131 were wounded in action and 54 were killed or died of wounds. Those who saw this wonderful battalion
drill need not to be assured of either their valor or their proficiency.
The astute Japanese at the last session of the legislature, sought the franchise.for these soldiers:—a preliminary move to the present agitation. Their women’s associations vied with their white sisters in sewing and knitting, in tag days for Red Cross and kindred objects. When the fifth Victory Loan was being raised in Vancouver the Canadian Japanese Association on being told they would receive the Prince of Wales flag if they raised $100,000 and a crown for $25,000 over that amount raised more than $170,000 and secured the flag and three crowns.
They further urge as proof of their right to full citizenship, the frugality and industry of their people and the indisputable fact that they rarely become a charge on the state.
This latter claim can be fairly made for both Japanese and Chinese. If the latter cannot point to a local battalion, they can at least claim that their nation was not idle in the war, and that the men it sent were no inferior specimens. Vancouver and Victoria saw something of these coolie battalions which passed through the cities en route to France as working corps, and on returning spent a few days at the coast. Wonderful, strapping men, most of them were, in sharp contrast to the rather undersized Cantonese with whom most Canadians are familiar.
How many of these there were is hinted at in the reports of A. L. Jolliffe, commissioner of immigration at Vancouver. He passed more than 70,000 of these through his hands on their way to France during 1917H8 and 49,000 during 1919-20, when on their return trip to China. Four thousand died in France.
Most of them were from northern China and many came from and returned to conditions of starvation. While they lay on their return trip at Williams Head, where forty of them died of disease, or wounds, Consul Yih made an impassioned speech, imploring British Columbia to draft them for five years at military wages to clear the lands of the pioneer.
“Their pay can be kept as security for their ultimate departure from the province,” hê declared, ‘‘and they will change the whole face of your country.”
Startling Birth Returns
UNLIKE every other form of immigration Oriental settlers have practically concentrated in one province, British Columbia, and that one of the least populous in the Dominion. The present census may give British Columbia 500,000' people. Of the Japanese total in the Dominion of about 25,000; the Chinese o more than 40,000, and the Hindu of 5,000 —or 70,000 m all—probably 90 per cent, or 63,000, reside in British Columbia. One-eighth of the population already Oriental—and prosperous! That itself is serious, whether t \A population remain a placid and quiescent entity, abstaining from all claim to political or civil rights, or whether it seeks that larger and natural recognition. California became hysterical in 1919 when it found every thirteenth child to be a Japanese.
But birth records indicate that the proportions between white and yellow are changing with increasing rapidity. A Vancouver daily patter carried on its front, page in June a statement that in the municipality of Richmond, adjoining the city, out of twelve births registered only one was that of a white child. A form prepared by the government of the province covering the vital statistics of the last ten years is more disquieting still.
Itjshows the birth registration for Japanese and Chinese since 1910 to be its follows:
During the first four months of this year, 307 Japanese and 104 Chinese births were registered, and provincial authorities anticipate the registration of 900 Japanese births in British Columbia this year. Official figures furnished the government by Japanese Consul Ukita before his return to .Japan showed that there were 15,000 Japanese in the province, 4,000 of them, 2,500 males and 1,500 females, being in Vancouver.
Oriental families are not excessively large. But they maintain high averages. The English family of five is now an exception. Among Japanese it is the rule. If the Chinese venerate their forefathers, the Japanese idolize their offspring. The Canadian mother, deliberately evading her maternal privileges, is an enigma to the little lady from geisha land. To the latter, childlessness is a deep disgrace, a burden of sorrow. It is a simple task in elementary mathematics to estimate the birth increase of Orientals for the next decade in the light of the records of the last. The Pacific ocean must ultimately become a Japanese lake.
This sudden access in the Japanese birth rate relative to the Chinese is puzzling until immigration figures for recent years is scrutinized. It will be discovered that while the number of Chinese females coming to Canada has been negligible, the Japanese are bringing in their women folk in almost equal numbers with their men. The figures for the last three years are as followed:
Year Male. Female. Children. Male. Female. Children
.... 695 26 48 459 379 54
1919 .... 4095 63 475 584 530 64
1920 . . . . 389 67 88 280 389 42
Totals . . 5179 456 311 1325 1289 160
In three years, it will be seen only 2 per cent of the Chinese immigrants have been females. During the same period almost 50 per cent of the Japanese immigrants have been women.
Because it is regarded by many Canadians as unnatural and immoral to debar the wives of any immigrating race from migrating with their husbands, the tendency is not to discriminate. But if there be no discrimination and the ratio of male and female among the Japanese immigrants continues, and Japanese immunity from race suicide persists, the problem of today is mild and easy compared with its form a few years hence. Rev. G. Kuburagi, a resident of Vancouver for more than thirty years, avers that a strong agitation for birth control is now fostered by the Japanese government. It seems of little avail in British Columbia. Indeed, viewing the' lusty families to be found in the Asiatic quarter, it is easy to conclude that the province is having the same experience as California, where the Japanese birth rate is sixty-two per thousand instead of between thirty and forty per thousand as in Japan itself. In spite of this increased birth rate, Prof. Inui, of the University of Southern California,, finds that the average California-born Japanese on attaining the age of twelve is four and seven-tenths pounds heavier and one and three-tenths inches taller than
a child of the same age in Japan.
A Broken Undertaking FT IS ONE of the boasts of the Japanese that they have scrupulously kept their agreements, and they ask that the British peoples keep theirs. Premier Massie, of New Zealand, speaking in Vancouver the other day, paid a fine trbute to his Pacific neighbors when he described how promptly, when required, their warships steamed to the Antipodean Dominion to convoy New
Zealand troops to the seat of war.
Yet it is a fact that one of the reasons why today Japanese are not paying a poll tax the same as the Chinese is an undertaking made by their government which has been
broken. Speaking on January 15,
1906, in the House of Commons, the premier, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, used this language:
“Some few years ago when we increased to $500 the poll tax which had been in existence for many years against Chinese immigration, we persistently refused to extend the. same prohibition against Japanese immigration. The reason we then gave was that Japan was an ally of Great Britain and we.could not treat the Japanese as we had the
Chinese population. . . .and I may say that our task in that respect was made easy because the Japanese govern ment has restricted the immigration of their own people. At the present time the Japanese government does not allow immigration from its own provinces, with the exception of a very few from each province. I think it is not more than three or four from each province.”
Sir Wilfrid’s reference here was to a tacit understanding which has been in force for years between Canada and Japan. It came first in the form of instructions to the governors of the Japanese prefectures issued by Viscount Aoki, Minister of Foreign Affairs, in August 1900, prohibiting entirely the emigration of laborers to Canada or the United States. In 1894 Japan executed her first treaty with Great Britain as a first rate power, but to this treaty Canada did not become a party till 1905, action being ratified by parliament in 1907.
Two things, according to Hon. R. Lemieux, led parliament to ratify that treaty unanimously. One was the assurance of the prime minister just quoted. The other was an undertaking given by Consul General Nosse to Hon. Sydney Fisher, then Minister of Agriculture in the Laurie llnst^hat’er cabinet, and communicated by
him to c0uncil: This letter written
by Consul General Nossein September 1905 was as follows:
“The emigration will always be restricted voluntarily by Japart and I do hope very much that Canada will depend on our good faith and will not try to put any restrictions by right of treaty.”
Some time before, in 1903, the Consul-General had written the government as follows:
“I have the honor of assuring you once again that the Japanese government is not disposed to issue the passports any more than necessary. Any number of new permits under 200 per annum cannot be said to bfe very large considering the fact that in this number not only the wives and children of the old residents but also merchants and students and even the consul and his family are included.” Thus assured, even the British Columbia members, strongly anti-Asiatic as they were, withdrew their opposi-
Notwithstanding this, however, “no sooner had the treaty passed,” according to Hon. Mr. Lemieux, “no sooner had it been mooted in public that Canada had adhered unreservedly and unconditionally to the treaty, than suddenly the flood gates were thrown wide open and Oriental immigration began to pour into the province of British Columbia.”
He absolves the government of Japan from complicity in that abuse of the treaty. But it occurred, and it required a mission to Japan, and a second “gentleman’s agreement” to adjust the situation. And again that agreement, the terms of which are secret, has failed to meet the problem, or to justify Mr. Nosse’s undertaking: “Whilst trusting in the Canadian government’s policy of justice and good faith the Japanese government will always adhere to their policy of voluntary restriction on their people emigrating to British Columbia.”
Subjects of Two States?
A NOTHER weakness of Japan’s position is that her Expatriation Law of 1916 provides that subjects becoming naturalized become expatriated, but a male over seventeen years of age will not be allowed to expatriate himself until he has completed active military service in the Japanese army or navy, or is known to be free from military duty (on account of physical disability, long residence in a foreign country, etc.) Likewise a foreign-born Japanese child must obtain permission through his parent to expatriate.
Continued on page 45
IS ALBERTA TOO HOT ?
VVIILL the Japs, or some dark-skinned, race, be ' the ultimate population of Sunny Alberta and the sunnier parts of the Canadian West in generali This query is raised by an article written in the “Hospital World" for August, 1921, by Charles H. Huestis, M.A., B.D., in which, he says
“Only in cloudy lands do we find white men at home. This fact may be formulated into a law of whiteness, namely: 'the whiteness of a people is in proportion to the cloudiness of the skies under tvhich they live.’ Cloudy and foggy lands are and have ever been, inhabited by bis blondes; sunny lands by little dark men. . . .
"It is not hard work that breaks down people who live in Western America and Western Canada. Hard work is wholesome—most people do not do enough of it. It is nerve exhaustion due
to over-stimulation from sunlight.....
“Personally, I have come to the conclusion that white men will not be uble permanently to colonize the West of Canada, outside British Columbia. west of the mountains. In two or three generations they will have learned their lesson."
Will Canada Go Yellow?
Continued from page 12
“The Turk,” he tells you, “was Mongolian. He is now European.” And if he is reminded that the difficulty is not only that the two races will not fuse but that we do not want them to do so, he will still shake his head in unconvinced protest.
Consul Saito is not so sure, but Kaburagi points to the happy marriage of a Vancouver Japanese dentist and an American college girl as one of many instances to disprove the predictions of the pessim-
Cumyow’s views were sought.
“I am a Canadian, but I married a Chinese woman,” he said. “I do not think intermarriage is wise, although the offspring of such marriages, which I have seen, especially in China, are good. They are vigorous and intelligent.
The consul Yik shares Cumyow’s views but he sees in failure to mix in marriage no barrier to Canadian nationality for his people.
Yet it is hard to forecast what long years of close association, of propinquity, of co-education, of similar problems and of difficulties shared in common, may accomplish. A Japanese baseball team headed the local league in Vancouver; a Chinese ball team is now touring their native land teaching young China to “play the game.” The first Chinese girl to receive an appointment as teacher in a Canadian school has just been installed in Victoria. Her father, a Methodist missionary, came to this country thirty years ago, and lives in Nanaimo. His daughter was born in that city twentyone years ago. She has received her education here, and there is little in the appearance, manners, education, or even the name of Miss Lavina Frances Dickman to indicate that she belongs to a race so distinct from Canadians.
Ownership of Land
IT IS frequently stated that foreigners cannot own land in Japan, and this is cited as a reason why such a privilege should be with-held from Orientals here. It is true that in Japan aliens cannot own land, but this does not impose such a handicap as may at first appear. Any incorporated company, not necessarily including Japanese, can secure title to lands in Japan. Even individuals are given fairly wide privileges under what is known as the rights of superficies, which, insuring leases in perpetuity, creates what is tantamount to ownership.
The Civil code of Japan provides; “A superficiary has the right to lease another person’s land for the purpose of owning thereon structures, or bamboos or trees.” Aliens have of course full private rights. To limit aliens in the province to leaseholds would not completely remove the danger as ninety-nine year leases would doubtless be employed. It would however, prevent a harassed white from parting with his property to an alien through the lure of a substantial price in excess of what his property would bring in the white market.
Labor, which has dreaded and hated the Asiatic because as a workman he was impossible to affiliate among organized white workers, is discreetly reassured in the manifesto which the Canadian Japanese association has issued and to which reference has already been made. Among the claims for consideration as citizens being set forward by the Canadian Japanese Association is the following state-
“On the 2nd of August 1920 the Japanese workers organized themselves into B union called: “The Japanese Workers
Union of Canada,’’covering all trades and their desire is to work in cooperation with other unions in the province. They do not wish to work at a lower rate of pay than the Canadian workmen receive but are demanding similar conditions of work and wages.”
Generally speaking the Oriental is as law-abiding as his white neighbor. In the list of court convictions, he appears at no disadvantage, especially as many so called crimes like gambling have no such significance to him. “I would far rather see the Japs here than the Italians,” said an official at Steveston. “They rarely start any trouble, but the Italians frequently do."
True some of the foreigner’s recreations we affect to despise. But is fan tan less elevating than poker, or a Chinese lottery than a coupon contest? And even in his moral lapses the racial pride of the Japanese is a rather worthy trait.
“The prisoner asks me to tell you,” said the interpreter to the judge in a Vancouver court, “how ashamed he is that by his act he has brought disgrace upon his country.” Would a Saxon in a Tokio dock behave as well?
It is that very national pride which constitutes one of the most formidable obstacles to the assimilation of the Japanese. Herein he differs from the European.
Each year in Japan a draft of young men is called up for two years’ service and it is from this duty that the law refuses to excuse even foreign born or naturalized Japanese. Consul Saito states that this law is a dead letter so far as Japanese on this side of the Pacific are concerned, and cites as proof the absence of any objection to the battalion raised by his countrymen for overseas service, and the way in which those who returned to Japan were feted. This, however, still leaves a doubt as to what might have happened had Britain on that occasion not been Japan’s ally. Iwashita. of Kelowna, states that this law is the subject of constant protest and representation to the Japanese government by their subjects in Canada. As long as it remains on the statute book it constitutes the kind of menace within the state with which Germany shocked us during the war, and its removal might fairly be made a condition preceding the granting of any Canadian rights.
The Law of Bushido
IT IS frankly admitted by the Japanese themselves that the rush for naturalization papers of their people was due to no zeal for Canadian citizenship, but from a knowledge that otherwise they could not secure fishing licenses. Yet they insist that they wish to become real Canadians. “We come to Canada,” says Iwashita, “because of opportunity, of liberty, of absence of caste. After a few years we cannot live in Japan, conditions are so different. We would be good Canadians— if vou would let us.”
Consul Saito illustrates the readiness of even a patriotic Japanese to change his flag whole-heartedly by the fidelity with which under the ancient creed of Bushido (the soul of a Samurai knight), a Japanese youth will change his family allegiance. By Japanese custom when, on the death of the father, the eldest son succeeds to the headship of the family, his younger brother or brothers is frequently adopted by some sonless parent, and becomes his heir. It is alleged that there has never been an instance where the adopted son failed to observe his new obligation, even at the expense of his blood relations. This was more noticeable more than half a century ago, when feudalism prevailed and when family feuds were often bitter and sometimes bloody. Even under those conditions when the natural and the adopted family came into conflict, so it is claimed, the full allegiance of the adopted son went to his new brethren.
Shall Education Precede Franchise
CLOSELY interwoven with this is the question of the franchise. Most of the intelligent aliens agree that they cannot expect this right, until they have by education qualified themselves for proper understanding of our public affairs. ! There are evidences that they are anticipating that event. The school conditions at Steveston, for instance, are not paralleled in Vancouver. Here a few years ago Rev. Mr. Kaburagi, M. A., who has been thirty-five years in the country, led a fight among his countrymen which resulted in the curriculum of the Japanese | primary schools being limited to the English and Japanese languages, so that the students might as quickly as possible pass on into the English schools.
Cumyow, the doyen of native-horn Chinamen, would make a thorough knowledge of Canadian history a qualification for the vote. He himself passed through all our schools and exhausted our scholast[ ic facilities. He is a keen, alert, cultured man with offices above a city bank, and I
is and has been for years a close student of Canadian affairs.
“The vote? Certainly,” he says, “where the alien has been born in this country and has been familiar with Canadian ways and customs. To Orientals, not so privileged—no, I think not.” “Do you regard yourself as Canadian or Chinese?”
“Oh, Canadian, of course.” This without arty hesitation.
“I registered as a voter,” he says, “and for many years exercised my fran^ chise. I have never voted for years.” he added quietly—“not since the Tomihama case.
The Tomihama case was a test by a Japanese of his right to register and vote in the face of provincial statute which deprived Chinese, Japanese, and Indians of that privilege. All the Canadian courts ruled the provincial statute ultra vires, but the Privy Council upheld the right of the province and validated the law.
The Prospects of Intermarriage
WILL the two races ultimately fuse into a common stock? Most observers think the offspring of such intermarriage is inferior to either of the parents. Herbert Spencer long ago declared them incompatible, protested against an ethnological impossibility, and decried any attempt to bridge the racial gulf as leading the way to social chaos.
P. E. Kuwbara, interpreter and secretary of the Fishermen’s Union at Steveston, combats this vigorously. He talks as fluently as Lenine of the international trend, of the brotherhood of man, of the gradual fusion of all races—and with the more authority because he is Christian. Many, perhaps most, continental Europeans do not love their forms of government much less take pride in them. They welcome a change of flag. The British immigrant need change neither his language nor his flag; the American only the latter. Even the Chinaman has no national solidarity; or self-consciousness. But when a group of Japanese— naval officers, merchants, or laborers,— stand under the picture of their Emperor and sing their national anthem, it is with rigid bodies, tense faces and with reverence and rapt devotion in every motion and syllable. When Iwashita told me that in some things Canada was superior to Japan and in others Japan superior to Canada I pressed him to be specific. He at once instanced the points of Japanese supremacy. But when I asked for the Canadian features of excellence he wrinkled his forehead, pressed his hands in deep concern across his puzzled brow and finally after a pause, confessed that he could not, for the moment, tell.
Settlement of Question Urgent
TT IS not the purpose of these articles to suggest the pathway out of this vexed situation. Two or three things, however, emerge conspicuously. Some perhaps are occasion for alarm, some, it is to be feared, of humiliation.
In spite of the fact that the Oriental belongs to a civilization which we know is ancient, which we often regard as effete, and which he himself admits is pagan, he has preserved in large measure certain primary virtues which the Caucasian has nearly, if not utterly, lost. Frugality is one. Industry is another. To a degree, sobriety is a third. If the Oriental is a menace it is not because of his vices. It is rather because of his virtues.
He lives on what a white will reject. His standard of living is not necessarily lower than ours. It is different, perhaps it is only less wasteful.
He neither hates, nor fears work. The gospel which a Vancouver labor-socialist preached to an applauding audience recently would bewilder him. “Brothers,” cried the reformer, “what we must get rid of is this arch enemy of us all—WORK” Ira Stratton in a recent issue of MacLean's put it thus: “The foreigner is here, partly because there are so many jobs over which Anglo-Saxon backs will not bend.”
He expects his wife to share his toil, and to bear many children for did not Confucius teach that it was a crime to die childless, and thus lack progeny to visit the graves of their ancestors? And if for any reason, she fail—well, he will have children, for he adores them. Hence judicious polygamy—legally banned but generally practised.
If he be ;¡ Japanese, he will be fairly honest, and spotlessly clean. If a Chinaman, more honest, and not so clean.
He will work while daylight lasts, and longer. He will eat rice while he must, and the white man’s meat and flour when he may. He likes both. He cannot always afford more than the first.. But whatever betide he will smile.
For he is a cheerful, as well as a helpful neighbor, a clever imitator and adapter. He plays much, but doesn’t make play his master.
But he remains an Oriental sometimes Buddhist, sometimes Shintoist, sometimes Christian. But (and this is the opinion of one of the most intelligent of his race) nearly always a free thinker.
May he be entrusted with the vote? Will his grand-children marry ours? Can East and West ever, racially, meet? Let the reader answer according to his own lights. But in the meantime the Asiatic stands one in eight of the population of our only Pacific province and is increasing mightily.
It is for our statesmen to find speedily a solution of this problem. One of them, Hon. Rodolphe Lemieux, after visiting their land, after being feted and feasted, after learning to appreciate their many graces and virtues, and after praising their better traits (as has been done in
these articles), moralized as follows:
“It is a truism in political economy that men who can work for fourteen or fifteen hours a day, who live with a frugality of which we have no conception, must prove formidable competitors in the field of labor.
“Be that as it may, the fact remains that British Columbia objects to a vast alien colony (exclusive, inscrutable, unassimilative, with fewer wants, and maintaining intact their peculiar customs and characteristics, ideals of home, and family life, with neither the wish nor the capacity to amalgamate), which gradually by the mere pressure of numbers, may undermine the very foundations of their pro-
“They have to safeguard the future and the distinctiveness of their race and civilization and in their passionate and unalterable conviction they cannot be protected unless the free ingress of Orientals is restricted and regulated, as in every AngloSaxon community there exists a deepseated popular determination to exclude from even the sparsely settled territories the concentrated masses of the Orient,
“Such are the economic factors coupled with race antipathy and incompatibility of ideals, that are at the bottom of all agitation against the influx of Oriental