THE BALANCED RATION
WOMEN AND THEIR WORK
Ethel M. Chapman
William Fleming French
Article IV in Our Food Series
IN A previous issue we called attention to the fact that
Nature intended us to be healthy and happy and so provided a great variety of foods that would assure us good health, strong bodies and sound sleep. Now we plan to show how these foods should be used, for the most nutritious food may prove absolute poison if consumed without regard to selection, quantity or balance.
Of the three great needs of the human family: food, shelter and raiment, food is far the most vital—for, depending upon its use, it is curative or destructive, healthful or poisonous, protective or debilitating.
It is natural, of course, for a people as hardy as Canadians to discount liberally the warnings of prophets and “specialists” and to have little use for fads or “isms”.
“Give me three or four square meals of good solid food a day,” says the broadshouldered son of the Canadian outdoors, “and you can keep your vitamines and proteins and calories for the puny individual at the desk or in the rocking chair.”
And it does seem, too, that the native of the Manitoba prairies, the Alberta northland, the British Columbia mountains or of the woods and waters of the Maritime Provinces could digest anything short of scrap iron and thrive thereon— only it does not work that way.
The absence of a single nutritive element from the foods of these huskies trips them as surely and as hard as it does the mild mannered and hollowchested office worker. The two-fisted buckaroo may worry along without1 religion or etiquette but when he neglects the modest mineral salt and the elusive vitamine he is due for a sad awakening.
Surely one would look far and long for hardier, stronger specimens than those who dare the barren lands and the great still ices of the far north in search of gold—yet they have
died in hundreds for the want of a squeeze of orange or lemon juice, for an infinitesimal atom of Vitamine C. That vitamine is the one and only cure for scurvy.
The Japanese fishermen are of sturdy stock—yet until science discovered Vitamine B, the cure for beri-beri, this disease carried them off by the thousands.
Acidosis, caused by excessive acids in the system, which acids, by the way, are controlled and kept in leash by the modest mineral salts found in our common foods, wiped out two thousand healthy laborers at a single stroke in Matto-Grosso, Brazil, and it struck down the crew of the famous German raider Kronprinz Wilhelm and sent the boat limping into an American harbor.
Value of Good Teeth
' I 'HESE are extreme cases, of course, but they indicate that pure strength is not a guarantee against mai-nutrition. During the war the Dominion govern-
ment made a few startling discoveries—" one of which was that almost thirty per cent, of the applicants for military service had poor teeth. The army will not accept applicants with bad teeth. This for more reasons than that poor teeth implies an inability properly to masticate the food with consequent improper digestion. We know now, for example, that bad teeth are almost invariably caused by an improper diet and that where bad
teeth are found one may be sure of finding other results of mal-nutrition.
Although the adult cannot retain health without proper nutrition it is not at the adult that the great drive for nutritional feeding is now aimed. It is at the children. Canadian children of today are Canadian mothers and Canadian fathers of tomorrow. Remembering this we realize that the question of properly feeding our children is the most important problem of the day. The child’s health of tomorrow depends upon his food of today. In succeeding issues we will tell what the various countries, communities and cities are doing to assure their children proper nutrition and explain how to correct and balance the diet of adult and child and how to plan diets for individual cases of malnutrition and disease. This article, however, must be limited to a discussion of the nutritional requirements of the average, normal child and adult.
(Mr. French will answer any letters regarding specific dietetic problems addressed to him at this office.)
As we have said before, the essence of correct feeding is to give the right amount of balanced rations at the
tight times. A balanced ration is a ration containing the right amount of all the fifteen chemical elements of food— the right amount being the amount needed to permit the system to function properly.
The calorie is the unit of measurement used to determine the amount of food required to nourish the human body. In connection with the following menus, as with all food, observe the following rules of child
1. Feed only fresh, clean, substantial food.
2. Feed regularly—at definite set intervals. But make these intervals often. The child requires nourishment oftener than does the adult— for its metabolism—the process of turning food into energy and blood, bone and flesh—is unlike the adult’s. Nature does not store concentrated nourishment in the child’s body in the shape of fat to anything like the extent it does in the body of the grown-up. The child uses up the nourishment received in food almost as fast as the body receives it, storing very little. Therefore, the child should be fed often—if hungry. Do not compel the child to observe the feeding hours of the adult. The child should have a light mid-morning and mid-afternoon lunch—if hungry. In other words, do not deny the child’s appetite good wholesome food and never force a youngster to eat against his will.
When lunches are given between regular meals they should consist of bread and butter and milk—never candy, cakes or other sweets.
3. See that the child has plenty of water to drink at all times. Water drinking is a habit—see -that your child forms it.
4. Never force a child to eat what is distasteful to him—the appetite is usually a barometer for the digestion. This refers to things that are absolutely distasteful to him—not to foods he at times tires of in order to get the daintier, if less wholesome dishes that he prefers.
5. Keep the child’s meal times pleasant. Save criticism, punishment and regulatory methods until another time. Happiness is essential to good digestion.
No Coffee or Tea
GOOD, fresh whole milk should form a part of every meal. Cocoa is a desirable beverage for children over four years of age. Coffee and tea, no matter how weak, should never be given.
(Figures to the right indicate how much food is required to produce 100 calories of nutritive value.)
Breakfast Boiled rice...........4-5 oz. With milk..........6 oz. And sugar..........3 ts. Bread, whole wheat . 1 thick slice. Butter ..............Yi oz. Oatmeal.............1 oz. With milk..........6 oz. With sugar ........3 ts. Bread, wdiole wheat . . . 1 slice. Milk ...............6 oz. Butter ..............Yi oz. Boiled whole wheat .1 cz. WTith milk..........6 oz. And sugar..........3 ts. Bread, Graham 1 Yi slices. Cocoa...............12 cup. Butter ..............12 oz.
Service for breakfast should be about as follows for child of eight to fourteen: two ounces cooked rice with raisins with four ounces milk and two teaspoons sugar. Slice of bread, glass of whole milk (eight ounces', one-half ounce butter. Total of 675 calories.
The breakfast may well be given variety by the addition of fruits, which are especially valuable for the mineral salts they contain. Many fruits, such as figs, dates and raisins, are rich in sugar content. The others are prepared with sugar. Keeping this in mind the sugar ration for the day should he lowered.
Idea! fruits for children are: oranges
(juice only for the youngest children), apple sauce, baked apples (pulp only for the little children):—fresh apples (scraped for the little ones); baked pears (pulp and juice only for the smallest children); stewed prunes (pulp and juice only for the small children); grapefruit (juice only for the little tots), and boiled raisins and figs for the older children.
Meat soup...........10 oz. Egg on toast Egg...............2 oz. Toast..............1 1-4 oz. String beans .........9 oz. ’Rice Pudding .......1 oz. 2 Baked potato ........3 oz. With butter ......1-2 oz. Green peas ..........4 oz. Stewed prunes .......1 Yi oz. Glass of milk .......6 oz. 3 Baked Halibut........3 oz. Or Salmon...........2 oz. Boiled potatoes .....4 oz. Bread, graham........1 Yi slices. Butter ..............Yi oz. Milk ...............6 oz. (Serve in portions that will give desired caloric value.) Supper 1 Baked potatoes.......3 oz. With butter ......Yi oz. Asparagus............6 oz. ’Junket,egg ........2.5 oz. 2 ’Celery soup.........4 oz. ’Twice bakçd bread \Vi slices. Butter ..............Yi ox. Glass milk ..........6 oz. Stewed oysters........6 oz. Bread ..............1 Yi slices. and butter .....Yi oz. Milk ...............6 oz.
(Whole milk, from which the cream
has not been removed is to be used.)
When the child reaches its third year, its digestive organs are more developed and are better able to digest heavier foods, and at this time the careful mother can add to the diet easily digested vegetables such as baked potatoes with milk or butter, young peas, young green beans, squash, asparagus tips and various greens. Milk, butter and eggs, together with such cereals as oatmeal, ground whole wheat and a small amount of thoroughly cooked rice or barley, should form the backbone of the diet for a child of this age.
Many Kinds of Soups.
A LITTLE white meat of chicken or other fowl and a very small amount of finely cut broiled beefsteak or mutton chop, or finely cut roast beef, properly saîtéd, may be given twice or three times a week but not more often.
All kinds of vegetable and meat soups, from which the fat has been carefully strained, are permissible, as are also milk
soups and vegetable purées, and rice or | barley may be added to these soups.
A little fish from which the bones have been very carefully removed is not obj jectionable for an occasional variety of ; diet. The dessert may be a custard, a junket, a pudding made of rice or tapioca or a fruit gelatine. Orange juice is to be fed children from the age of three months and practically all fruit juices and sauces may be fed children of two years and more.
A child of five may have all these things, plus a greater variety of vegetables, including onions, turnips, cauliflower, stewed tomatoes, celery, cabbage and even young corn—though the last in a limited quantity.
A child of five may have meat four cr five times a week and may extend its variety to practically all broiled, stewed or roasted meat—except pork. Broi'ed fish should substitute for this meat once or twice a week.
A child of this age may have as much boiled rice (preferably natural brown rice) and other cereals as it may wish.
At this age children may also have a more varied selection of desserts, including simple sponge and gingerbread cakes, corn starch pudding, ice creams, and
A good menu for this age would conBreakfast
1— Graham muffin with butter, milk corn meal mush (whole grains), an orange.
2— Corn bread (from corn meal that has been degerminized), porridge made from whole wheat, poached egg, glass of milk, an apple.
The corn meal mush and whole wheat porridge suggested in these menus should be accompanied by whole milk or cream.
The whole wheat can be ground in special family wheat mills or an ordinary coffee grinder and should be cooked for from three to four hours.
A cup of meat broth accompanied with a little rice, barley or oatmeal, broiled fish, baked potato, whole wheat bread and butter, orange tapioca and cocoa.
Cream of celery soup, broiled lamb chop with green peas, boiled rice, apple sauce and milk.
The desirability of giving children a light supper cannot be too strongly emphasized.
The child’s stomach should not be heavily loaded at night, for a child that has eaten lightly before going to bed, invariably sleeps better than a child who has been given a large meal.
1— Toasted whole wheat bread in a bowl of whole milk.
2— Stewed prunes, graham crackers, and glass of milk.
A child of ten is unusually active and its digestive apparatus can take care of almost any natural food, but a child of ten or of twelve or fifteen should not be fed foods soaked in fats or foods over-rich in sweets, or foods highly spiced or seasoned. Fried foods are undesirable, broiled foods acceptable.
Sample Diet for 10 Years
THE thing to remember is that the child needs wholesome, coarse, plain foods not rich concoctions or highly seasoned delicacies. Also, a child of active age usually requires an afternoon lunch and often a glass of milk and a slice of bread in the morning will prove helpful.
Below are sample daily diets for child ten years old.
Breakfast Calories Orange .........One-half ........50 Corn meal........4 tbsp............65 Sugar.........2 tbsp............50 Top milk 4 tbsp 100 Bread 150 Butter 2 level tsp 70 Plum jam I tbsp . 100 Milk . . 160 Dinner Fish chowder K oZ> 240 Spinach . . . . 2 tbsp . . . 50 Bread 150 Butter . 2 level tsp 70 Cup Custard 100
Afternoon Lunch-3.30 o’clock Milk .........,.1-2 pint .........160 Oatmeal cooky.... 1 large...........100 260 Supper Baked potato .... 1 large ..........125 Butter ..........1 tsp ............35 Cottage cheese ... 1 tbsp............50 Whole wheat bread 1 slice ..........75 Butter ..........1 tsp ........ -35 Stewed peaches . . . One half..........35 Cocoa...........1 cup .... ;......175 530 Total calories for one day ..........2145
And now to consider the balanced diet for an adult. By adult we refer to the man or woman of twenty-five or over— for at that age the body has completed its growth and is an active working machine. The process of growth being complete the food the adult consumes is used only to supply energy and heat and to keep the body tissues fresh.
How much food a man, of say thirtyfive for example, requires depends largely upon his activities. At that age food is required merely to keep the human machine repaired and stoked and when more food is consumed than is utilized by the system the surplus is burned into fat and stored about the body, overloading it and interfering with the normal
muscle action, besides taxing the digestive and excretory system.
A man of sedentary occupation naturally would require much less food than the man engaged in hard manual labor, as he would not expend as much energy and consequently would not burn up as much food. The average office worker, for instance, requires approximately 2500 calories every twenty-four hours; a man who spends considerable time on his feet and at light exercise needs from 2800 to 3000 calories of food value and a man engaged in hard muscular work must have up to 3500 calories every twenty-four hours. Powerful men engaged in strenuous outdoor labor often require from 4000 to 5000 calories in that period of time. Heavy labor where exposure to the elements, especially to cold, is involved demands as high as 6000 calories to supply the needed heat and energy.
The acceptable diet for such workers is of extremely wide range and includes all kinds of meats, cheese, vegetables, fruits and is rich in protein and fats. Foods rich in mineral salts and vitamines must also be included in the fare of the average man, whether he be a ribbon clerk or a lumber jack and so we find that the steamship companies, the lumber companies, the army, the navy and all other thoughtful employers of men insist that the diets prepared for them shall contain plenty of fresh vegetables and
Really Useful Household Hints
The Vegetable Dinner
NOW is the time to make the most of late summer and early fall vegetables. A complete vegetable dinner served occasionally during the next month while things are at their best, would be a genuine treat to many families. Such a dinner served with a creani soup and fairly substantial dessert, does not require meat, but if meat is desired, broiled chops would be perhaps the most appropriate thing. Combinations suggested for five vegetable dinners in September are: Mashed potatoes, parsnip cro-
quettes, stuffed tomatoes; baked potatoes, buttered squash, creamed cauliflower; French fried potatoes, boiled onions, scalloped cabbage; creamed potatoes, corn fritters, macedoine of carrot, turnip and canned peas; stuffed potatoes, buttered beets, scalloped tomatoes.
Quick and Tasty Sandwich Filling
A savory and easily prepared sandwich filling is made by creaming peanut butter until it is of the desired consistency for spreading. A few drops of cold water may be added if necessary. Add highly seasoned tomato catsup in the proportions of two tablespoons of catsup to three of peanut butter. Mix thoroughly and spread between very thin slices of white or brown bread. No butter is needed.
A Use for Old Blankets
When old blankets, either woollen or cotton, become thin and threadbare, they make a fine interlining for comforters. When pieces are used, overlap the edges slightly and baste together so that they will not curl up inside. Cover line and knot the same as any other comforter.
Old heavy woollen skirts can be used in the same way. Rip the skirt, reverse every other gore and baste the pieces together. Silkatene is good for tying with as it passes through the material more easily than yarn. Such quilts wash more easily than where batting is used for interlining.
Methods and Machines
Satisfactory results from the use of any of the approved washing machines is largely a question of the right method. First, fill the machine to the water line and then do not crowd it with clothes. The second essential to success is to use soft water, either natural or softened by the addition, of one cupful of a solution of washing soda to a washerful of clothes. Be sure to add this before any of the clothes are put in. Finally, the soap must be dissolved in boiling water, and enough of the soap solution added to make a good suds. Do not put the clothes into too hot water as this has a tendency to set certain stains. After washing, the clothes should be given a scalding hot and then a cold rinse. If these directions are followed, clothes will be washed cleaner, and will be subjected to much less wear in the wash than under the old hand method, because the cleansing in the new way is frictionless, the motion of the machine forcing the cleansing suds through the clothes without any rubbing.
How to Use Baking Soda
In using soda with sour milk in muffins, biscuits, johnny cake, etc., there is a general tendency either to use too much soda, or not to distribute it thoroughly. Neither
of these troubles will occur if the cook will allow only one-half teaspoonful of soda to each cupful of sour milk and add to this from one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful of baking powder. Also sift the soda and baking powder with the flour instead of putting the soda into the sour
A New Closet Hanger System
Perhaps when your house was built the architect failed to provide as much space as you seem to need for wardrobe purposes, especially for hanging clothes. If your clothes rooms are small, try having a pile run from end to end, along the middle of the room, at the right height to suspend a dress on a hanger without the hem touching the floor, you will have room for almost any number of hangers on this pole and the garments can be hung very close together without crushing each other. •
Economy in Dress
Sometimes the woman with even an unnecessary supply of hats and coats and dresses finds herself in the serious difficulty that her things do not match. She gets a blue hat and a blue dress in the spring, and in the fall a brown suit and a brown dress, and in the winter* when she puts on the blue dress it won’t go with the brown hat at all. If she could have decided on one color, like navy, or black and white at the beginning of the season, and keyed all her things to this color she would have had no trouble. And by the way it is well to remember that a black hat can be worn with practically any color of costume.
A well-known designer gives us a further word on harmony in clothes, “There are certain things which you simply cant wear together,” she says, “though each may be lovely in itself. They clash in color; they are inappropriate in design or fabric, or both. There’s your tailored suit for instance, made of jersey or crash. Look out for the hat you wear with it. If you don’t, you’ll lose all your smart appearance. Perhaps you’re set on having one of those lovely new lace hats. I know how becoming the floppy, transparent brim is, and how fascinating the delicately colored ribbons. But if you do buy the hat, don’t, I beg of you, wear it with your tailored suit. It’s out of place, and you can just believe it will have no qualms about proclaiming it. Just think how much smarter you’d look in one of the new straw sailors with a contrasting colored brim, or one of the new sports hats in brilliant hued suede.”
Don’t wear an elaborately embroidered georgette blouse with a wool skirt of gay plaid. Such a blouse belongs with a crepe de chine skirt, or one of taffeta or voile. The plaid wool skirt looks its appropriate best with an over-blouse made of jersey sports silk, or just with a goodlooking sweater.
Don’t wear openwork silk stockings with a thick-soled, low-heeled oxford. Don’t wear them during school hours, or in the street, either.
Don’t wear fancy hairpins and barrettes ablaze with colored stones in the daytime. . ,
Don’t carry an expensive beaded bag with your sports suit. It’s out of place, and it won’t be a bit convenient, either.
Don’t wear a strap pump or a slipper with a high French heel in all kinds of weather and for every occasion. Don’t wear it with business clothes or school clothes. I’d like to say, “Don’t wear it at all.” But if you are bound to, then use it for evening wear only.
Don’t just because it is the vogue right now, persist in wearing the Blister Brown collar with all your blouses and cotton dresses. It’s girlish and stylish to be sure, and perhaps it does suit your sister or your chum; but, on the other hand, it may not suit you.
Don’t dress like your best friend. You may just love her new ruffled organdie frock, but isn’t she tall and thin? Perhaps that’s why she selected it, and you may be short and fat. A thin girl and a fat girl were never intended to dress like
The fat girl, the tall girl, the thin girl and the little girl must learn to dress each for herself. Nine cases out of ten, the other girl’s clothes, no matter how tempting you find them, are not for you. Individuality is, after all, one of the secrets of correct dress.