FROM IMMIGRANT TO M. P.
JOHN A. STEVENSON
IN ALL the pre-Confederation assemblies and legislatures of Canada there was a substantial proportion of British-born members because a very large number of the inhabitants of Canada owned the British Isles as their place of nativity.
Even after Confederation the proportion remained reasonably large and included three Prime Ministers,
Sir John Macdonald, Mr. Alexander Mackenzie, and Sir Mackenzie Bowell. But as the years rolled on and the native stock increased in numbers the proportion of Britishborn declined and in the parliament of 1911-17 they did not number more than half a dozen. In the present parliament, however, they have received a sudden increment and to-day no less than twenty-two members of the House of Commons were born in Great Britain or Ireland.
“ Nemo potuit exuere patriam” is an ancient saw but it is still true, and the circumstance that so substantial a proportion of the membership of the House of Commons is British-born cannot fail to have political effects. Most of them came to this country in search of a fortune and had little thought of fame; in many cases their early struggles were arduous and their experiences hard, but the fact that they have successfully surmounted them, effectually dispels the theory that the average Britisher is incapable of holding his own in the competition of Canadian life. For the present, however, it is not with their parliamentary performances but with their British backgrounds and Canadian careers that we are concerned.
Our Minister of Labor
IT IS fitting to deal first with James Murdock, for the A double reason of his position and his easterly precedence. His name is distinctively Scotch, but he was born at Brighton, the English watering-place, made fashionable by George IV, and was brought to Canada as a child of three. After an ordinary public school education he chose railroading as his vocation and served in various grades until his oratorical gifts and organizing power won him a place in the official hierarchy of the railway brotherhoods. He had reached the high pinnacle of a vicepresidency in them when his acceptance of a seat on the illstarred Board of Commerce changed the whole course of his career.
His spectacular resignation, coupled as it was with a violent assault upon the Meighen Government, endeared him to the Liberal chieftains and strengthened ties of friendship which he had formed with Mr. King during the latter’s days of industrial statesmanship. He was invited to enter politics and although his candidature in South Toronto failed, he was the obvious Minister of Labor and by the timely elevation of Archie McCoig to the Senate a seat was found for him in Kent. To-day he sits within the sacred circle of the ministry and attempts to combine solicitude for the interests' of Labor with the demands of cabinet solidarity.
schools and soon after attaining his majority emigrated to Canada, to which he brought shrewd brains and the
David Spence, Conservative member for the Parkdale division of Toronto, was born in 1867 in the debateable land of the County Armagh in Ulster where Orange and Green have waged so many battles through the centuries. He got his education at the local
favorite political ideals of the Scoto-Irish race" In time he blossomed forth as a wholesale fruit and commission merchant and fortune has smiled upon his business ventures. But it was also fitting that a native of the very cradle of Orangeism should become a puissant figure in the order in his adopted land and the prestige which he attained on its councils brought him to municipal office. He served on the City Council of Toronto for six years and filled other local offices. By 1921 he had attained high place in the Conservative hierarchy in Toronto and when in 1921 H. M. Mowat betook himself to the bench, “Dave,” as he is familiarly known, was accorded the Conservative nomination for Parkdale. which proved equivalent to election.
William Gawtress Raymond, Liberal member for Brantford, was born the son of a barrister in London, Eng., in 1855. From childhood he evinced a love for the sea and his pathway to the navy, which he joined as a midshipman in 1868, was paved by education at the Royal Naval School, New Cross, and the Royal Naval Academy, Southsea. Among his companions at the latter was Lord French, and Admiral Sir Henry Jackson passed the same naval entrance examination.
For the next five years he saw varied service and had the interesting experience of visiting Jerusalem, but on a voyage to the Cape of Good Hope in 1873 he experienced a breakdown and had to leave the Navy. He emigrated to Canada and wandered about a little until he settled down in business in Brantford in 1877 and since that date the city"’s career has been closely intertwined with his own. He has been alderman and mayor of Brantford, an active member of the Board of Trade, president of the 50,000 Club and an officer or member of numerous local bodies and clubs.
His intellectual interests are deep, and strong; he is a learned Shakesspearian scholar, and as a House of Commons which deeply admires his, speeches can understand, he has few equals as a lecturerin Canada. Always a devoted Liberal, there was general satisfaction in Brantford when he was appointed postmaster in 1899 and he filled this office with genera! acceptance for twenty-two years.
But he was not destined to* end his days in the Civil Service.
In 1921 the Liberals of Brantford were determined to beat their arch-enemy", W. F. Cockshutt, and they reached the conclusion that Mr. Rayunond was the only" paladin capable of this feat. Under strong pressure he resigned his post and won the most spectacular victory of the campaign by" 1,995 votes.
Brought up on Editorials
ROBERT FORKE, the Progressive leader, is a Scottish borderer, having been born in 1860 on a farm near Westruther in Berwickshire. It is a region redolent with romance and history’ and nearby, in Mr. Forke’s boy’hood, lived Lady John Scott, the author of “Annie Laurie’” and one of the last of the genuine Jacobites.
But in `~`.-~ t'~~ F~rke family dt cided that roman ti~ ha~kground~ ould :~ot `hem ,h s~d emigrated to where they took up tar~d n e Ipt~tomie. And here Mr. f~trmed t~t axnt'*~. (t~st in
cooperation with his father and then on hisown account, and fortune has not been unkind to his operations, to which he brought the tireless industry and the traditional skill of the Lowland farmer. He took a very active and creditable part in local municipal work and for a Ume acted as Secretary of the Manitoba Union of
M udpalities, serving also as a member of the Manitoba Tax Commission.
A strong Liberal, the political columns of the Manitoba pr,y Pr-. . . as he has publicly stated, were his chief solace after a hard day’s work in the fields, but he was content until his sixtieth year to act as a spectator rather than as a combatant in political battles. However, he was one of the first prominent Liberals in Manitoba to support the idea of Union Government in 1917 and having thus broken from his old party, he found himself offered the Progressive nomination for Brandon in 1921; he accepted it with diffidence and won an easy victory. But he was not destined for obscurity and now that he has become the leader of a full-fledged party his career is part of the nation’s history.
The adjacent constituency of Macdonald has like Brandon sent as a Progressive member to Ottawa another Scot in William J. Lovie.
He was bom in 1868 in the famous shire of een amid a family tragedy, for his died seven days later. He got a good entary education at the local schools, a native land could not hold him and at the tender age of sixteen he emigrated to Canada.
After some vicissitudes he took up land at Holland, in Manitoba, and the same qualities which brought Mr. Forke success have won prosperity for Mr. Lovie. He has always been active in local affairs, serving as school trustee for twenty-one years and for twelve years as a director of the Holland Agricultural Society.
He was one of the pioneers of the farmers’ movement in his district and has since 1905 acted as Secretary-Treasurer of the Holland Branch of the U. F. M.
When RC. Henders fell by the wayside and joined the Tory party, a successor had to be found as Progressive champion and Mr.
Lovie was offered the nomination. A quiet, retiring man, he knew that he would be happier on his farm, but his eldest son had fallen in the -war and he felt that he would be untrue to his example if he shirked the call of public duty; nomination in 1921 meant election
and his majority over his nearest opponent was 3,957. There are no known poets in the House but Mr.
Lovie is probably unique in being a fervent reader of Scotch Doric poetry, which he finds is preferable to most of the contents of Hansard.
One Meal in Five Days
O A. HOEY, the Progressive mem1her for Springfield, favoured an interested House of Commons on April 6 with an account of his life and times in Canada under the thin veil of an anonymous immigrant’s experience.
He was born at Enniskillen, in the “Black North’’ of Ireland and 1883, and tiring of the prospects of his native land came to Canada in 1909. Lacking the necessary $35 he contrived to evade the immigration officers and found his first job in a Montreal tannery at $7 a week. However, in two months he saved enough to go West to Fort Frances where he got a position at a salary of $400 per annum.
Yet from this modest income he managed in two years to save enough to spend five years at Manitoba University, earning of course some money in the vacation months. In that period his habits, by his own account, were not luxurious, for on one occasion he went five days on one meal and for the last six weeks of his university career lived on ten cents per day. At Manitoba, he fell under the influence of the Rev. S. G. Bland, and a clerical career for which he had qualified himself gradually lost its at• tractions. He became interested in problems of social and political reform and his capac-
ities as a publicspeaker attracted the attention of the farmers’ leaders. He became a salaried organizer for the U. G. G.
and his successful work for this company brought him the nomination for Springfield in 1921 and an easy victory over his Tory and Liberal opponents.
Thomas W. Bird, Progressive member for Nelson, is by
birth a Cumbrian dalesman, for he first saw light in the Eden Valley on a farm which h i s great-grandsi r e had rented two centuries ago. On both sides his forebears were farmers, Anglicans and sound Tories, and Mr. Bird’s first contact with politics came in 1892 when he left his allotted task of scaring rooks in a turnip field to sit on a gate and cheer J. W. Lowther, the late Speaker of the, British House of Commons, who was the Tory candidate.
At fourteen young Bird was apprenticed to a grocery and produce firm and acquired a business training. His ancestral Toryism received its first shock over the Boer War, when Lloyd George’s fiery orations won him from an early ardor for Imperialism. To complete the transformation, he joined the Methodist Church, became a lay preacher and went to a theological college at Manchester, where he was deeply influenced by the teachings of Professor Peake, a famous scholar. Then came six years’ service in East Anglia as a preacher where familiarity with the life of the farm laborers and fishermen bred sympathy for their lot. In 1910 he took the stump in the famous Budget election and spoke continuously for Free Trade and the death of the House of Lords.
Bird had always cherished a longing for the wider spaces of the earth and in 1911 he seized an invitation to go to Canada. He took charge of various churches in Manitoba and finding neither of the old parties congenial to his English radicalism developed an interest in the agrarian movement. Never lacking in courage, he made no secret of his sympathies and his outspoken advocacy of the farmers’ cause as well as his abilities as a speaker brought him unsought in 1921 the Progressive nomination for Nelson and an easy victory at the polls.
SASKATCHEWAN has sent a quartette of Englishmen, a Welshman, and an Ulsterite to Ottawa. The Ulsterite is Andrew Knox, member for Prince Albert since 1917. Mr. Knox was born on a farm in the historic county of Derry in 1866 and. came to Canada in 1890. He drove 300 odd miles from Regina in a wagon before he reached the homestead where he has now a prosperous and pleasant habitation. Agricultural skill, inherited from a long line of farming ancestors, and industrious habits have brought him a competence, but he has always had a deep interest in the fate of his fellow men and since 1907 has been taking part in public life on various stages.
Continued on page 48
From Immigrant to M.P.
Continued from page 14
From 1907 to 1917 he served as a director of the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association and the reputation for probity won in that field ensured his election for Prince Albert as a Unionist in 1917. In company with Mr. Crerar he broke away from the Union Government in 1919 to lay the foundations of the Progressive party and was triumphantly re-elected in 1921.
John Evans, M.P. for Saskatoon, was born in 1867 at Phayader, Radnorshire, Wales, and local records show that for some 700 years his ancestors had been agriculturists and shepherds_ near the foot of Mt. Plinlimmon. But in all that time not one of them had ever owned a foot of the land he tilled and when young Evans in his early twenties picked up some immigration literature of the Canadian Government at a cattle show at Shrewsbury, his mind was made up that'Wales, with its game laws and petty tyrannies of feudal landlordism, was no place for a real man when the wide acres of Canada were open to him.
He came out to a relative in Grey County, Ontario, and spent some years working in the neighbourhood of Owen Sound. But one day as he was unloading wheat off a C.P.R. boat the thought struck him:
“I should not be here competing for the little bit of work transferring this wheat from lake to rail. Others can do this, my place is to produce it.”
So he homesteaded on a quarter section six miles east of the City of Saskatoon and has resided there ever since. From the first he was active in the organization of movements for the betterment of his own class. He was a pioneer in the formation of grain growers’ associations and won almost national
fame in 1910 by publicly bearding Sir Wilfrid Laurier on the subject of his tariff backslidings. He sought, however, no public office until the Progressive nomination for Saskatoon came to him in 1921 and his reputation for rugged honesty and political courage brought him an easy victory in a three-cornered contest.
A Pioneer Butcher
THOMAS SALES, M.P. for Saltcoats, was born at a place called Hucknall, Torkare, in the county of Notts, famed for its lace and its cricketers. After an ordinary schooling Tom found his way to the city of Nottingham and learnt the butchering trade. He was also a keen athlete and sportsman and can talk for hours on and about the glories of Arthur Shewsbury, the Gunns and other giants of Notts cricket. However, he emigrated to Canada in 1900 and opened the first butcher’s shop in Saskatoon. But the soil allured him and he took up land at Langham in 1900. There he farmed successfully until 1918 when he moved to Tantallon and now owns in the pleasant vale of the Qu’Appelle seven quarter sections. He organized a local of the Saskatchewan Grain Growers’ Association at Langham in 1907 and the connection thus begun led to a variety of offices and a nomination for the Federal House in 1921 when he easily vanquished the veteran, Tom McNutt, and a luckless Liberal.
Whereas Tom Sales spent a large part of his mature life in England, his colleague, Oliver R. Gould, of Assiniboia left his native Hampshire for Canada at the tender age of eight, in 1881. His parents settled in Lambton county on a farm, but ten years later young Gould,
along with two brothers, moved west to Oak Lake in Manitoba. He worked for some years as a carpenter and during the winter months improved his education by attendance at various colleges. In 1900 he took a homestead at Manor, Sask., where he has been farming ever since. Gould from his earliest days in Saskatchewan took an interest in politics and helped in divers campaigns. He refused several suggestions that he should embark upon a political career but in 1919 he undertook the responsibility in the Assiniboia by-election of fighting the first federal contest undertaken by the Progressive party and, despite the oratorical labours of Messrs. Motherwell and McMaster, was triumphantly elected, an exploit which he repeated in 1921.
Pioneered in the Bush
CHARLES C. DAVIES, Progressive member for North Battleford, was born in Berkshire, England, in 1879, and was educated at the national schools. He chose the teaching profession as his career but after seven years pined for wider fields and emigrated to Canada. June, 1900, found him at Indian Head, Sask., in a search of a job on a farm, and the fine physique of the young schoolteacher stood him in good stead through three years’ hard work when he was acquiring rural experience.
By 1904 he felt himself a veteran of the plough and took up a homestead of 160 acres in the vicinity of North Battleford. Then followed the usual dual life of the homesteader, working the land in summer and taking laborer’s jobs in the bush and elsewhere in winter. But he gradually established himself as a complete farmer and in 1909 joined the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association. In 1916 he was elevated to the board and for four years served as a director. For years he was rigidly independent in politics but the Progressive movement caught his fancy and he actively identified himself with it. The result was the nomination for the riding of North Battleford in 1921 and a majority of over 5,000.
Arthur John Lewis, Progressive member for Swift Current, is one of the half dozen Progressive members who have clerical antecedents. He was born at Ishana, Northamptonshire, England, in 1879 and was trained as a sanitary engineer. In 1903 he came to Canada and won for himself a good education at Saskatchewan University and the Presbyterian College at Saskatoon. Qualified as a minister he filled various charges and is now settled at Lawson, Sask. But the saving of souls is only one of his activities. He is secretary and manager of the Central Valley Mutual Hail Insurance Company, he is a school trustee, he is a Mason and I.O.O.F., and he is an assiduous propagandist for the agrarian cause. His services to it got him the Progressive nomination for Swift Current in 1921 and he carried the seat very comfortably. Mr. Lewis has the distinction of being the proud possessor of the largest family, to, wir seven in number, of the Progressive contingent.
Won Momentous By-Election
ALBERTA seems to have great faith in Scotsmen as its parliamentarians for four of its present federal delegation as well as two of the provincial cabinet own Caledonia as their native land. Robert Gardiner, Progressive M.P. for Medicine Hat, is like Mr. Lovie, an Aberdonian by birth. At an early age he saw what Dr. Johnson called the finest view in Scotland, namely, the road to London, and spent some years there in the drygoods business before he fared forth for the outer Empire.
In 1902 he homesteaded in the Battleford district hut a succession of disasters befell his crops and he moved southward to his present habitation in the valley of the Red Deer River, where he farms in solitary bachelor state. He acquired a reputation as a vigorous speaker and capable man of affairs and was nominated to contest the by-election in Medicine Hat caused by the death of A. L. Sifton. His overwhelming victory was a portent of the approaching doom of the Meighen Government and brought its leader home post haste from London. Mr. Gardiner never took his seat in the old parliament hut was easily re-elected in 1921.
, A. Speakman is another Scot, the -rimy city of Dundee, which last Nov-
ember discarded Mr. Winston Churchill in favor of a prohibitionist, being his birthplace. He received hig early education there but at the age of eleven was brought to Alberta. He has had the advantage of association with a very able father, James Speakman, who was long one of the leading spirits in the agrarian movement. Speakman, senior, was a well-educated and studious man and his son has benefited by the contact. As long as his father lived, he allowed him to undertake the public duties of the family and stuck closely to the farm. But he qualified himself for public life by filling various local offices and when the opportunity came in the shape of a Progressive nomination for the seat made famous by Dr. Michael Clark, he was ready to step into the wider arena of Federal politics.
H. E. Spencer, Progressive member for Battle River, shares with William Shakespeare the honor of being born at Strat-
ford-on-Avon and was educated at Alcester School and Wolverley Collegiate. Thereafter he qualified as a critic of the banking system by serving seven years in the Metropolitan Bank at Stratford. Later he entered a printing and publishing business at Paris.
But office life did not suit him and he emigrated to Canada in 1908. Very wisely he spent eighteen months acquiring agricultural experience on a farm, but in 1910 in company with a brother he homesteaded forty miles northeast of Hardisty, Alberta. The advent of the G.T.P. brought them within twelve miles of the railway and their fortunes have steadily prospered. To-day the firm of Spencer Brothers owns three sections of which two are broken; they believe in mixed farming and are reckoned very successful by their neighbours.
Spencer was a pioneer member of the U.F.A. attending the first convention in 1909. He organized the McCafferty Local in 1915 and in 1917 was elected director for the Battle River district. Spencer has also filled a variety of local offices and it was a fitting culmination to his career of public service that he was nominated in 1919 Progressive candidate for Battle River. In the tidal wave of 1921 he ran more than 10,000 ahead of both the Conservative and Liberal candidates and may now be reckoned the possessor of one of the safest Progressive seats in Canada.
Two of the Younger Members
SCOTLAND is supposed to be a vast wilderness of Presbyterianism but in it there are some cases of other religions. One of these is at Tullymet in Perthshire where there is a strong community of Baptists and there D. M. Kennedy, Progressive member for West Edmonton, was born on a farm on August 21, 1884. But before his nineteenth birthday he was in British Columbia in search of fame and fortune, one of his first employers being Senator Bostock, the
present Speaker of the Senate. His first winter was put in feeding cattle on Grande Prairie but he spent the next three years working as a carpenter in Winnipeg. His ambition at that time was to become a clergyman and by 1908 he had saved enough money to begin a course at Brandon College. But before he took his degree ill-health overtook him and after a holiday in Scotland he was advised to try an outdoor life.
So back he went in 1911 to his original occupation of farming and took up a homestead in the Peace River country three hundred miles from the nearest railway. One of his chief interests was the accumulation of a herd of pure-bred Herefords but in the next six years he found time to fill various local offices with acceptance. In the summer of 1921 the U.F.A. organization in the Peace River constituency elected him to the provincial house by a majority of over 2,000 but he was never destined to take
his seat at Edmonton for when the Federal election came the LLF.A. again chose him as their champion and after a stiff fight with the redoubtable Frank Oliver he won through to Ottawa.
E. J. Garland was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1885, and was educated at Belvidere College and Dublin LIniversity. At one time he intended to become a doctor but he tired of study and sought the freer air of Canada. His first job was on a farm at Carleton Place, Ont., and then he worked for a time for the C.P.R. in Montreal. Next he was a private tutor at Thetford Mines, P.Q., but after he had set his charge on the road to Oxford he turned his own face to the West. There all manner of experiences fell to his lot; he worked on farms, he handled lumber on Sheepshead Creek, and he dug sewers and planted trees on the streets of Calgary. In company with his brother he took up homestead land in the Handhills district and by taking it in turns to work out for wages gradually created a good farming establishment. To-day they own between them five quarter sections but are sometimes doubtful whether they are “broke” or not. Mr. Garland was rigidly independent in politics till he became identified with the farmers’ movement in 1919, but his good education and capacity for public speaking soon brought him to the front and once he secured the nomination for Bow River in 1921 his election was easy.
A Youthful Laborite
WILLIAM IRVINE, Labor M.P. for East Calgary, was born in the Shetland Islands as recently as 1885. His educational opportunities were limited but he made the most of them and at an early age developed a zest for economic and social studies which has never left him, and is now concentrated upon the Douglas credit scheme. He served an apprenticeship as a carpenter but before he was twenty decided to seek his fortune in North America. He
worked at his trade for some years in various American cities like St. Louis, but came back to British soil in 1907 in search of higher education. He got it at Wesley and Manitoba Colleges in Winnipeg and in due course blossomed forth as a Presbyterian minister. But the regular orthodoxy of that church proved too much of a straitjacket for him and he bade it farewell for the Unitarian faith. He moved west to Calgary where he became pastor in the local LTnitarian church and found scope for his reforming proclivities by editing a bright little radical weekly. Politics, however, gradually claimed more and more of his time; he became a salaried propagandist for the agrarian movement añd his able speeches both in the West and in the Maritime provinces made many converts. In 1917 he tried without success to reach first the local legislature and then the federal Parliament but he established a reputation as a fearless protagonist of radical reforms and in 1921, running as a Labor candidate with the farmers’ support, he was elected for East Calgary.
The B.C. Delegation
BRITISH COLUMBIA has a larger proportion of British-born inhabitants than any other province, but only three of her federal M.P.’s come under this category. First and foremost comes the Hon. H. H. Stevens who is now one of the veterans of Parliament. A native of Bristol, he was only nine years of age when his family emigrated to Canada in 1887 and settled in Peterboro, where he received his early education. Almost before his boyhood was ended he moved out to B.C. and enjoyed a very generous experience of frontier life in various mining camps.
The spirit of adventure took him to the Philippine war as a private in the American army and after serving with credit in the field he held the post of Assistant-Superintendent of Transportation. He then volunteered for the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion and before this campaign ended was the only healthy survivor out of a detachment 125 strong.
Thereafter he returned to British Columbia and settled down to humdrum business pursuits. For a time he managed a large grocery business and then he served as secretary of a trust company. In 1908 he set up for himself as an accountant and financial broker and in 1918 formed an alliance with the late Senator Shatford to organize ShatfordStevens, Limited, import and export merchants.
But with his business career coincided" a stream of public activities. He founded and edited for many years the Weekly .Journal, a paper devoted to the discussion of local problems, and served as an alderman on Vancouver Council for two years. In the reciprocity election he carried Vancouver as a Conservative by a huge majority and still represents one of the ridings into which the city is now divided. He was not long at Ottawa before he had made his mark as an effective debater and as the elder statesmen dropped out he rose steadily to prominence in his party, until for a sad brief space in the autumn of 1921 he held office as Minister of Trade and C ommerce.
Thomas George McBride, Progressive member for Cariboo, completely outclasses the other Irishmen in the House in the richness of his brogue. He was born at Ready, in Ireland, in 1867 and came to Canada in 1892. His activities have been varied and his interests are partly urban and partly rural. On the one hand he is a farmer and cattle raiser on a considerable scale at Stump Lake, and on the other he is the leading spirit in a prosperous building supplies firm which bears his name in Vancouver. Like Mr. Stevens, he served an apprenticeship to public life as an alderman on the Vancouver city council for two years but made his first adventure in the political field from his rural base of operations, being returned as a Progressive in 1921 in a three-cornered contest.
Alan Webster Neill, of Comox Alberni. is one of the small band of simon-pure independents in the House. He is a native of the ancient town of Montrose in Scotland and was educated at Cupar and Edinburgh. At an early age he bade farewell to his native land and
sought his fortune in New Zealand. But in 1891 he came to Canada and settled on Vancouver Island, which has been his home ever since. Politics always had an attraction for him and though he twice failed for election as a Liberal candidate he was consoled with
the post of Indian agent. Eventually he sat for some terms in the B.C. Legislature, but in 1921 he turned his attention to the Federal field and was duly elected. He claims to be bound only by one pledge—always to vote on the opposite side from Mr. Meighen.