WOMEN and THEIR WORK

FOOD FACTS WE SHOULD KNOW

DOROTHY GRAHAM January 1 1924
WOMEN and THEIR WORK

FOOD FACTS WE SHOULD KNOW

DOROTHY GRAHAM January 1 1924

FOOD FACTS WE SHOULD KNOW

DOROTHY GRAHAM

XVII. GELATINE

IT IS not more than twenty years ago that gelatine could be bought only in the drug store in shreds or sheets of a dark brown color. To-day, it is a bright, amber, sparkling, granulated product put up in small sanitary boxes, and is as well known as any other food that is used. What is gelatine?

The housewife’s guess includes everything from hides, hoofs, and old bones to calves’ heads and glue. In reality gelatine is made only from the inner strip of the shin bone of ¿attle. About half of these cattle come from the United States and South America, but the other half come from India. Why India? It seems, that, though the Brahmin’s scruples will not permit them to kill cattle for food, they are, however, used for draft animals, and consequently develop a large bony structure. It is also considered wicked to work them after a certain age. The hide is used then for garments and shoes, and the shin bones are exported for making gelatine. After the material has reached the factories where gelatine is made it takes almost eleven weeks before it can be turned out a finished product. First of all the phosphate is removed by the use of a weak hydrochloric acid. Then the bone is ground, but there is less than seventeen pounds of gelatine out of every one hundred pounds of raw material. Every pound then is washed by 132 pounds of water before it gets through the process. After its first thorough washing in big vats it is pumped into outside tanks where it is limed for three weeks in the open, new lime being added three times. Then for forty-four hours it is again washed and pumped up into the cooking tanks with their steam coils. It is dropped from here into the receiving tanks and goes through the centrifugals where 18,000 to 20,000 revolutions a minute separate the heavy solids. Then follow two filtrations, through wood pulp to purify and to evaporate it until a seven to fifteen per cent concentration is obtained. This liquor goes through aluminum-lined tanks and is passed over a moving belt at twenty-five degrees temperature from which it comes out in a thin, solid sheet. This in turn is passed on to an aluminum rack where it is stripped. Cold air is passed over it and it goes to the drying rooms which are kept at ninety to 120 degrees. When the gelatine reaches these rooms it is fifteen per cent, strength, whereas when eaten it is only twenty per cent. Next it is ground and it is not until after that the housewife begins to recognize the gelatine as she knows it though it is in large barrels ready for packing in small retail packages in which it is distributed.

There are four grades of gelatine according to whether it comes from the first run of six hours or the subsequent runs of the same length. The last is just as good as the first as far as actual purity goes but the first has greater jelling powers and is lighter in color. The demand for the first grade however, has become so great, that it has forced the prices between the first and the fourth very wide apart.

Chocolate Plum 'Pudding One package of gelatine, three-quarters cup of cold water, one cup of sugar, half teaspoonful of vanilla, one cup of seeded raisins, half cup of figs or dates, quarter cup sliced citron or nuts, half cup of currants, one and a half squares of chocolate, one pint of milk, and a little salt.

Soak the gelatine in water, put milk in double boiler, add melted chocolate, and when scalding point is reached add sugar, salt, and soaked gelatine. Remove from fire when mixture begins to thicken. Add vanilla, fruit and nuts. Turn into the mould and chill. Remove to serving dish and garnish with holly. Serve with whipped cream and flavor it with vanilla.

Maple Sponge: One envelope of gelatine, one and a half cups of cold water, two cups of brown or maple sugar, half cup of hot water, whites of two eggs, one cup of chopped nuts.

Soak the gelatine in cold water for five minutes. Put sugar and hot water in saucepan. Bring to the boiling point, and let it boil ten minutes. Pour syrup gradually on soaked gelatine. Cool and when nearly set add whites of eggs beaten until stiff and mix in the nuts. Turn into bowl first dipped into cold water and

chilled. Serve with custard made of yolk eggs, sugar, a few grains of salt, milk and flavoring.

Cider Jelly: One envelope of gelatine, half a cup of cold water, half a cup of boiling water, three cups of sweet cider, a little sugar.

Soak the gelatine five minutes in cold water. Dissolve in boiling water and add cider and sugar to taste. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Strain into bowl. First dip in cold water until cool.

Fruited Sponge or Cup Cake: Half an envelope of gelatine, quarter of a cup of cold water, one cup of sugar, two cups of grated pineapple, one cup of thick cream.

Cook the pineapple and sugar until thick and set aside to cool. Soak the gelatine in cold water for about five minutes and le*it stand over boiling water until dissolved. When cool add thickly whipped cream and beat into pineapple. Cut off top of individual sponge or cup cake. Hollow out centre and fill with above paste. Replace the top of the cake and cover the whole of it with frosting and decorate with pieces of pineapple and figs. If desired any fresh or canned fruit may be used in place of the pineapple for making the paste.

Lemon Sponge or Snow Pudding: Half an envelope of gelatine, quarter of a cup of cold water, one cup of boiling water, three-quarters cup of sugar, one-quarter cup of lemon juice, white of two eggs.

Soak the gelatine in cold water, dissolve in boiling water. Add sugar, juice and grated rind of one lemon. Strain and set aside. Occasionally stir the mixture and when quite thick beat with large spoon and whip until frothy. Add the whites of eggs beaten stiff and continue beating until stiff enough to hold its shape. Pile by spoonfuls on glass dish. Fill and serve with boiled custard. An attractive dish may be prepared by coloring half the mixture red.

Chicken Mousse: Half package gelatine, two-thirds cup cold cooked chicken, yolks of three eggs, one-third cup Jordan almonds, quarter teaspoonful salt, few grains cayenne, quarter teaspoonful paprika, one cup heavy cream, one cup hot chicken stock and one tablespoonful cold water.

Beat yolks of eggs slightly, add salt, paprika, and chicken stock slowly. Cook over hot water, stirring constantly, until mixture thickens; then add gelatine, which has soaked in cold water five minutes. When gelatine has dissolved, strain mixture, and add chicken (using white meat), and blanched almonds, both finely chopped or ground, and forced through a sieve. Season highly with salt and cayenne. Set bowl containing mixture in larger bowl of ice water, and stir until mixture begins to thicken: then fold in cream, beaten until stiff. Turn into mold, and chill. Remove to platter, and garnish top with round and flower shapes of wine, lemon or tomato jelly, and sprigs of parsley; garnish sides with round and flower shapes of jelly and diamond shapes of truffle; garnish around base with cubes of jelly.

Cucumber Salad: Half envelope gelatine, one cup chicken stock, well seasoned, one slice onion, one sprig parsley, two cucumbers, green coloring.

Soak gelatine in one cup stock. To remaining stock add onion, parsley and cucumbers, pared and grated. Cover and let stand two hours. Heat gradually to the boiling point, add gelatine and color light green. Let stand until nearly cold, then strain into individual paper cases or molds, in the bottom of which is a slice of cucumbei. Garnish tops with mayonnaise dressing and halves of blanched almonds.

Tomato Jelly: One package gelatine, half cup cold water, three and a half cups tomatoes, half an onion, half bay leaf, stalk celery, two cloves, few grains cayenne, two tablespoonfuls vinegar, few grains salt.

Soak gelatine in cold water five minutes. Mix remaining ingredients except vinegar, bring to boiling point and let boil ten minutes. Add vinegar and soaked gelatine, and when gelatine is dissolved, strain. Turn into a mold, first dipped in cold water, and chill. Remove from mold to bed of crisp lettuce leaves and garnish with mayonnaise dressing, forced through a pastry bag and tube; or the jelly may be cut in any desired shapes and used as a garnish for salads or cold meats.

Indian Salad: Half cocoanut, grated, two apples, cored and chopped, two cups celery, chopped, three pimentos, one tablespoonful grated onion, one-third teaspoon salt.

Allow small amount of lemon jelly to harden in individual molds, fill with the above salad mixture, and pour liquid lemon jelly over. When hardened, unmold and sprinkle with some of the grated cocoanut, and serve on lettuce leaves with mayonnaise dressing. Garnish with pieces of the bright, red pepper.

Christmas Candy Supreme: Half envelope gelatine, two squares chocolate, three cups sugar, one cup sour cream, half cup sultana raisins, half cup candied cherries, quarter cup chopped English walnut meats, quarter teaspoonful cinnamon.

Soak gelatine in two tablespoonfuls cold water ten minutes. Melt chocolate in saucepan placed in larger saucepan containing boiling water. Bring to the boiling point and let boil until mixture will form a soft ball when tried in cold water. Re-

move from fire, add gelatine, and when it has dissolved add cinnamon, raisins, cherries, cut in small pieces, and nut meats. Beat until_ creamy and turn into buttered tins, having mixture about one and a quarter inches deep. Cool, remove from pan and cut in slices for serving. The mixture may be put in individual tins, and when unmolding insert in top of each a sprig of holly Omit fruit in this recipe and you have Somerville Fudge.

Turkish Delight: One and one half envelopes gelatine, half cup cold water, two cups granulated sugar, half cup boiling water, grated rind of one orange. Juice of one orange, juice of one lemon, red coloring. Half cup chopped nut meats.

Soak gelatine in cold water ten minutes. Put sugar and boiling water in saucepan, bring to the boiling point, add soaked gelatine and let boil twenty minutes. Add flavoring and coloring, strain, add nut meats and turn into a bread pan (first dipped in cold water) to one inch in depth. Let stand until firm, remove to board, cut in cubes and roll in powdered sugar. The nut meats may be omitted.