Women and their Work


Women and their Work




Women and their Work


From new ideas for booths and entertainment, to a chart of quantity cookery, this comprehensive article covers the perplexing field of ways and means for the moneymaking entertainment on a large scale.

THE season for fairs, church bazaars, teas and entertainments of all kinds is fast approaching. Nothing stimulates the interests of women in general like a ‘party,’ be it a ‘pay as you enter’ or a society function.

There are certain things which must be sought for and encouraged, and others that must be avoided if an entertainment or bazaar, is to be a success. Of these, the first to strive for is associated effort. This is absolutely indispensable. The more people interested in carrying the undertaking to a glorious ending, the greater the gain in every way. Rarely do the efforts of a few individuals bring financial or social success to an undertaking of this Bort.

Therefore, the first thing to be avoided is placing the same individuals in charge of more than one department. Apportion the work and responsibility. Select your keenest, most executive women and put them as convenors of the most difficult departments and appoint to assist them, women who work best under leadership.

Be sure that you delegate several tactful, kindly women to places of interest and give them among their helpers, the shy, the diffident, and the women who need an outside interest to lighten the monotony or drudgery of their drab everyday lives. Stimulate such women to interested effort and you will be accomplishing social service work as well as promoting the success of your fair. In doing so, do not pass by opportunities for fear of meeting with a rebuff. It is not always the

Eoor who need the sunshine of uman kindness let into their lives.

Planning the Booths

IN PLANNING for your booths, lay out your space in such a way that plenty of room is left for the sightseers and shoppers. Do not divide your crowd up too much. A department store manager once said to me, “when we can attract a crowd around a counter, the sales always multiply for buying is contagious.” Have your booths or tables as large as your space will permit, as goods displayed in a cramped space do not sell to advantage and are often damaged or soiled. Do not display all your best things at first. Change them about and bring out new articles occasionally to keep your booth interesting.

Vary the booths from year to year; do not let the undertaking fall into a rut. Provide different programmes for each afternoon and evening if the bazaar is to last more than one day.

A very delightful booth is one for selling flower and garden seeds, dried everlasting flowers, tulip bulbs, dahlia tubers, potted plants, etc. Secure wrapping paper in different colors for the little envelopes and get seeds to fill them, from the nc)ted amateur gardeners in your vicinity. Orders might also be taken for roots of raspberries, rhubarb, etc., to be delivered in the proper season from some garden where they find their supply increasing too rapidly. Trim such a booth with branches of dried seed pods; these pods may be dashed with gilt, dipped in colored commercial calcimines, or

painted with any mixture to form a color scheme if so desired, or mixed with evergreens.

Have you ever used gaily flowered wallpapers to make a booth? Tack heavy building paper, or cheesecloth or old cotton of any description, on the frame work, as a groundwork on which to paste the wall paper. Wrap the supports of the top of the booth with white crepe-paper or cheesecloth cut in strips, and bind it on with black tape. Place a dado of wallpaper about the top. To keep toes and knees from going through the paper about the bottom of the booth, make a little picket fence or lattice of laths that have been dipped in black stain, or colored with whited calcimine. Make the little

fence the length desired, then nail it on to the uprights. A wall paper, showing gay hollyhocks or roses, or bright flowers of any kind, will make an admirable background for the seed pod decorations. This booth might also have a dried-pea or bean guessing contest and sell flowerpainted place cards, bridge scores, mahjongg scores, painted flower novelties, candied fruits and peel, ferns, pretty pots in which are planted hyacinth bulbs, freesias or other indoor winter blooming bulbs. The fall, when the pretty gardens of your neighborhood are still in mind, is a good time to sell seeds of the beautiful flowers which recently made these homes so attractive. Bright bottles of flowerscented bath salts might also find sale

here. The bath salts are made of sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate crystals, bought at a drug store, colored and perfumed with scent oils such as oil of geranium, lavender, etc. Be careful to use a coloring that will not color the bath water. Cold tea will make them a rich creamy color. Use plenty of good scent and bottle the salts attractively, tying about the neck of the bottles, ribbons representative of the perfume used, violet, rose, lilac, etc. Flower painted candle and lamp shades will generally find ready sale, also.

Then what about an ‘Odd Bit of China Booth?’ Every person has an odd bit or so, pretty in itself but not greatly valued because it does not just match any thing else or fit in any place. It may be just what some other person wants and admires. Arrange an attractive background for these bits and they will sell. China is always fascinating to every woman.

Avoiding Embarrassing Left-overs

WHO has not seen the unattractive bits of ‘fancy work’ which hang about the needlework booth toward the end of the sale, to the embarrassment of the donor and booth people alike? No person wants them, possibly would not know what to do with them if they bought any of them. The booth convenors generally know from whence these come. It does not lie within the powers of every woman to make fancy work and why ask people who are not thus gifted to attempt any thing of the sort? It is a wise general who studies the limitations of his forces. Unobtrusively swing the efforts of your people to making the things they can do well; avoid all wasted effort. So much superfluous fancy work is brought into existence every year of our lives that it would be well to repress some of it in favor of useful articles. I have often heard people say, when speaking of bazaars, “Well, I want to help that cause along, but I do wish I could go there and spend my money for something that would be of real use to me.” I am sure this same sentiment is expressed everywhere.

As a rule ready sale will be found for children’s romper suits, underwear, well-fashioned knitted things of all sorts, useful but pretty aprons, well made women’s underslips, dainty collars and cuffs, step-ins, pretty garters and lingerie straps. Why not limit the production of doilies, cushion covers too fancy to be usable, afternoon tea-aprons which no one ever wears, and things of mystery which cannot even be named because it is impossible to find any useful purpose to which they might be converted? Ask only experts at the work to contribute fancy work! Why not ask some of the others to contribute to a Rug Booth or Chintz Booth, where all sorts of useful and pretty chintz things may be sold?

Some Unusual Wares

WHAT pretty rugs are now fashioned by clever fingers! Even the rag rugs, for which it is only necessary to provide the material torn in strips and have them woven, are attractive thing«

of usefulness, or the hand-braided or sewn rugs. Gather up all the old woollen sweaters, sock tops, and such materials, in your district, ask that they be sent in to a given place clean, or better still ravelled out and wound into balls. Now with a pattern on a background of burlap, purchase some rug needles and have rugmaking bees. Crocheted rugs are easily made also. A hit or miss pattern or a rug all in one color, with a border of a deeper shade, is very effective. It is surprising what useful pretty rugs will result, for women are born weavers and if you get

several rugs started at a bee some of the workers may take them home to finish with the assistance of their family or neighbors, or may organize a small rug bee of their own. A rug booth should be a very attractive one.

Scissors-painting might be used to great advantage in decorating such a booth as the rugs would require. Cut the shape of a bird, basket for flowers, butterfly, sailboat, windmill, or something similar, out of cardboard, cut different colored crepe paper in tufts or bands to cover the paste board and paste it on the cardboard. Gay-colored parrots with brilliant vari-colored plumage may be made; the basket may be covered with woven or braided strips of the paper and decorated with flowers. There simply is no end to the designs of which one can make use. Fasten them to a plain black or dark background and you can arrange a very pretty booth which will enhance the display of rugs.

For an infants’ wear booth, a large stork may be fashioned to stand upright at one end of the table, holding in its long beak the four corners of a square of white cloth containing a naked baby doll. At the opposite end of the table a real bassinet, or one fashioned of crepe paper, might be i sed to hold small articles and complete the decoration of the booth. Two or more strands of heavy wire may be twisted together to make the legs firm.

Shape the stork of cardboard, using heavy wire for the beak and legs. The stork should stand on one leg. Just about eight inches below the body there is a joint in the leg; the one it is standing on should crook there a bit and the other leg be bent at almost right angles to the body. Wrap the legs and bill in strips of yellow crepe paper. Fashion a partly opened wing shape of wire. Cut white crepe paper in narrow strips, across the grain of the paper. This can easily be done without removing the wrapper from the package. The strips should be three inches in width. Cut clear across the roll, using the band around the paper to guide your scissors. Push the band back along the roll three inches and cut again. Slash these strips into narrow fringe, rounding the edges to stimulate feathers. Pad the body of the bird on the side that will be toward the aisle and tie a piece of thin cloth firmly over the padding. Now put on the crepe paper feathers, winding them

around and around the body, catching them with a thread or bit of white paste to hold them firmly in place. The feather fringe must well overlap to give the bird a soft, downy appearance. Wrap the wire wing in the same way and attach it to the back of the bird. If the cardboard used for the body is not very strong and firm, glue two thicknesses together.

Large Japanese parasols, fixed high at both ends of a table and the inner points of the ribs connected with the tips of the opposite parasol ribs with twisted fine strips of crepe paper, and a few twisted

strips hanging down from the tips of the outside edge of the parasol, will be very effective. Old umbrella frames may be wrapped in green crepe paper, each rib representing a stem, and small paper flowers tied or sewn on to them. These should be used in the same manner as the Japanese parasols. If you can manage to straighten the ribs without breaking them, they will be more effective. A booth of the flower umbrellas should have one very enormous paper rose, or other flower or group of small flowers, for the central motif in the lower part of the booth, and a smaller rose or other flower at each end.

A very attractive flower booth is a large round one with a high top. It should occupy the centre of the room. The booth as planned must be all in white. Crepe paper may be used if the bazaar is to last but one day, but cheesecloth is softer and makes a prettier booth. The cheesecloth could be kept for another season but it is generally best to sell it at a reduced price for dusters or curtains at the close of the bazaar and so reduce the price of decorations.

A soft frill of cheesecloth, sixteen to eighteen inches wide or half a width of the cloth, should be used around the top of the framework, and the upright supporting the top wrapped in the same material. Another frill of cheesecloth masks the foot of the booth. Use white paper to cover the shelves and let some of the pots of flowers stand on lacy white paper doilies. A white-draped table in the centre to hold reserve of flowers, wrapping paper, string, etc., will be found very useful. The only trimming used on this booth should be four carved and painted, wooden British Coats of Arms. These may be found over fire halls or police stations, and might be borrowed. They are fastened up with large hooks and are easily put up or taken down. Fasten one in the centre of each side of the booth.

A cabaret and ice-cream booth, arranged to represent the deck of a ship, could be made very attractive. Nor must we forget that chocolate and candy have a manufacturing home ‘down east.’ A fish pond might be one of the attractions of this booth.

A ‘tough’ booth is always an amusing novelty. Display to advantage your most attractive smJl articles. This booth requires the bright, inexpensive, small

things that tempt one to pick them up for examination. Any person who picks up an article must buy it.

Preparing the Supper

OF COURSE, there is always the supper to think about; generally conceded to be the hardest task of all. The reputation of the housewives of the order giving the bazaar demands that the supper be a very good one. Here, also, people of many diversified interests may be brought into action.

If there is a supper to provide for more than one day, how about having a Scotch supper one night? All the available Scotch ladies interested, and a real Scotch supper of good dishes served in a real Scotch way. An English supper might be the feature another evening—good old English dishes arranged and served in the English manner by the English ladies of the community.

Have the men of the congregation or society undertake the supper one evening. They may astonish you with their efforts and have a good time, too. Now I am going to suggest a menu that, with a few hints from a man-cook, or a sympathetic woman, will enable them to serve what may prove to be the best enjoyed supper of the week. It is simple and easy to make and consists of Swiss steak, baked potatoes, cabbage salad, canned peas, ice cream and cake. Have the potatoes boiled in their jackets until about half done and brought to the kitchen as warm as they can be kept. Fill up the oven with them and let them finish baking. Take out the ones that are done, group the remainder together in the bottom of the oven and fill up the top with fresh ones. The potatoes should be of medium size so that one potato is a portion. For the Swiss steak, pound round steak, sprinkling it repeatedly with flour until it is pounded in. Cut the steak in portions, brown quickly, season well. Make a thick gravy of the grease the steak was cooked in; pack the steak in baking dishes or a fireless cooker-kettle, pour the gravy over it, cover and simmer in oven an hour. The

baking dishes may rest on top of the potatoes in the oven if there is no other oven or a fireless cooker available. On a cold winter night, when many people have driven far to the supper, this meal will be found most enjoyable.

The married ladies might be asked to undertake the supper one evening; the

single ladies another evening; there are so many different groups to interest.

The Important Business oi Coilee Making

TT GENERALLY will be found best A though, to appoint one person to have charge of the coffee-making for the entire duration of the bazaar. It is difficult for inexperienced people to make good coffee in large quantities. Guess work will not do. The following directions, if closely followed, will insure the coffee being good.

Always remember that no one can make good coffee if an inferior grade is used; get the best. Have the coffee ground to the fineness of coarse granulated sugar; if finer, it is apt to be muddy, and if coarsely ground, more coffee will be required.

One Imperial gallon of coffee will serve twenty-two large cups or forty-four after dinner coffee cups. To make the coffee a good strength, twelve ounces of coffee must be used to each gallon of water; one and one-half pounds of coffee to two gallons of water.

To prepare coffee for a large number of people measure the water for amount of coffee desired; take from this quantity, two cups of water for each pound of coffee; put the remainder on to boil in a convenient, large receptacle, a utensil that can be tightly covered. Allow one egg and a pinch of salt for each gallon of coffee desired. Wash the shell of the egg well. Have ready, a large, long muslin bag made of stout material. It must be big; remember, coffee swells! Fix this bag firmly on two sticks or rods that will reach across the boiler of water; make a strong hem on two sides of the bag, about one half of the width of each side, turn the edges and sew securely. The hem must be deep enough to permit the rods to slip through. The bag must be long enough, when suspended from the top of the boiler, to hang well down but must not come within three or four inches of touching the bottom, after it is filled with the coffee. Scald the bag and let it stand in cold water until required.

When the water begins to bubble, put

the coffee, the salt, the measured cold water, (two cups to the pound of coffee taken from whole quantity) the crushedup egg-shells and eggs, in a large covered pail or preserving kettle. Remember to use only as much cold water as you measured from entire quantity. The cold

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Planning the Tea, Fair, or Bazaar

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water and eggs should make the coffee the consistency of thick porridge. Dip some of the boiling water and pour onto the coffee, stirring well as you pour. Put in enough boiling water to nearly fill the pail; cover tightly and let it stand on back of stove five minutes.

Wring out the muslin bag from the cold water, place the rods through the hem and suspend it from the top of boiler or urn containing the boiling water. Dip, or pour the coffee from the pail into the muslin bag: now dip the boiling water, or draw off from tap if urn is fitted with one, and pour the water repeatedly through the bag of coffee. Do this for about five minutes, cover boiler as closely as possible, let simmer, not boil, ten minutes. Remove bag of coffee, cover liquid coffee tightly, l“t it stand five minutes, it is then ready to serve.

The coffee bag may now be placed in the pail, boiling water may be poured on it in case an extra supply of coffee is needed, but this second coffee, of course, will not be so good as the first lot.

Do not make your coffee too early;

the water should be freshly boiled. A half-hour before serving time is quite early enough to pour the first hot water on the coffee. Plan to have the water boiling at that time. Follow the directions closely; do not think that a little more water won’t matter or that it need not be closely measured.

The Planning ol Meals

STRIVE for simplicity in planning meals for large gatherings.

If a buffet service has been decided upon, select a menu that can be eaten easily with a fork; foods that are fairly dry. Keep in mind the difficulties under which these refreshments are to be eaten.

At a regular meal a person generally eats a pound of cooked food and drinks a pint of fluid. The portions must be planned according to the number of courses to be served. In purchasing supplies, it must be remembered that food shrinks in the cooking and allowanceniust be made for uneatable parts. A serving of roast beef or ham weighs about five

ounces when served hot; an ordinary helping of boneless fish, four ounces, less, if there is a meat course as well. A portion of chicken, turkey, or game should weigh four ounces. One of the greatest assets in quantity serving is a good carver. Good practical carving is an absolute necessity. If carving is badly or extravagantly done, the results may be unfortunate. If meats are over-cooked, great waste will ensue.

The accompanying quantity tables may be of assistance in determining the required amount of foods. It is very difficult, at times, to know just how many guests to prepare for, but generally some sort of estimate can be made.

In planning the number of cakes required, the different sorts of cakes must be considered as to their serving qualities. Flour is the deciding factor in this matter. A sponge cake or angel cake does not serve as many people as a layer cake but it requires less flour to make. Then, too, consideration must be given as to whether cake alone is to be served. If ice cream or jellies are to be served with it, less cake will be required. Not so much cake is needed for an afternoon tea as for a high tea, supper or picnic. In computing number of cakes, I have given amount of flour to use, aggregating four layer cakes, using eight cups of flour, for fifty people.

The softened butter, used in spreading the bread for meat sandwiches, may be flavored with Worcestershire sauce, white pepper, paprika, or parsley. Any desired seasoning may be used, with very good results.

Soups and Vegetables to Serve Fiity People

Clarified Consomme (To make two gallons)— Six pounds shin of beef, four pounds lean beef, a chicken carcass, two pounds carrots, one bay leaf, one and a half pounds onions, six stalks of celery, six sprigs parsley, teaspoon cloves, one pound turnip, one ounce of salt, eleven quarts water. Simmer five hours, strain, let cool, remove fat, using white absorbent paper to remove last. Mix one quart cold stock with four whites of eggs, heat rest of stock, mix together, boil five minutes stirring often, strain through muslin bag.

Cream of Tomato (Two gallons.)—Six quarts canned tomatoes, two teaspoons pepper corns, two bay leaves, six sprigs parsley, six stalks celery, two onions, two tablespoons sugar. Stew all together, strain, add half teaspoon soda. Six quarts milk, one and a half cup of butter, one and three-quarter cups of flour. Cook until thickens. Add salt, pepper, paprika, pour first mixture slowly into milk, stirring constantly.

Mashed Potatoes (Eighteen pounds)—One-third pound of butter, three tablespoons salt, one quart scalded milk. Portion five-eighths cup.

French Fried Potatoes (After paring, seventeen pounds)—Three tablespoons salt. Portion one cup.

Baked Potatoes—By count. One potato per person.

Boston Baked Beans (Twelve and a half pounds)—-Four tablespoons salt, one cup molasses, one cup vinegar, one tablespoon mustard, one teaspoon pepper, two pounds salt pork.

Canned Corn—-(Seven No. 2 cans)— Two tablespoons salt, two tablespoons flour, one-third pound of butter, five cups milk, three-quarters teaspoon white pepper.

Canned Peas—Right cans. One-third pound butter.

Hot Slaw Cabbage Salad (Nine pounds cabbage)—-Two teaspoons mustard, half cup butter, quarter cup salt, two cups cream, one tablespoon flour, two cups vinegar, four eggs. Heat cream, add flour, mustard, eggs, hot vinegar last, pour over cabbage boiling hot. Mix well. Large can of condensed milk may be substituted for cream.

Meats, Poultry, Fish and Oysters to Serve Fiity People

Roast Beef to Serve Hot—Twenty-five pounds.

Roast Beef to Serve Cold—Twenty pounds.

Roast Lamb—Twenty-five pounds.

Roast Pork—Thirty pounds.

Swiss Steak—Fifteen pounds—Round steak.

Raw Ham for Boiling — Eighteen pounds.

Cooked Ham (boneless)—Eight pounds.

Turkey — Thirty-seven and a half pounds.

Fowl—Thirty-seven and a half pounds.

Spring Chicken—Half to quarter chicken per person according to size.

Ducks—Thirty-seven and a half pounds.

Chicken Croquettes (Seventeen pounds chicken)—Two and a half quarts cold cereal or brown together two and a half cups fat, three cups of flour, add two and a half quarts milk. Cook until very thick. Half cup chopped green peppers, one cup finely chopped celery, four tablespoons lemon juice, salt, pepper, crumbs and egg for rolling. Fat for frying.

Chicken Salad (Seventeen pounds chicken)—Five quarts cut celery, one and a half to two quarts salad dressing. Marinate chicken in French dressing.

Chicken a la King (Twenty - five pounds)—One gallon rich white sauce. Beat in five raw eggs, two cans pimentos, four cans French peas.

Fish, full-sized portion—'Twenty-five pounds.

Fish course order, with sauce—Twelve pounds.

Oysters, stewed (Six to eight quarts)— Eight quarts milk, four tablespoons salt, one pound butter, one and a quarter teasspoons pepper.

Oysters, escalloped (Six quarts)—Two cups melted butter, one cup ground celery, one and a half cups oyster liquor, threequarters cup cream, two cups milk, three cups stale bread crumbs, six cups cracker crumbs. Do not place more than two layers of crumbs and oysters in one dish.

Oysters, creamed (Four quarts)—-Six quarts milk and oyster liquor, two cups butter, two and a half cups flour, four and a half teaspoons salt,half teaspoon pepper, one teaspoon celery salt, one cup chopped mushrooms.

Buns, Cakes, Sandwiches, Waffles, Coffee for Fifty People

Muffins—Two and a half cups flour, three teaspoons baking powder, one cup shortening, three teaspoons salt, one and a half cups sugar, five eggs, one quart sour milk, sweet milk about one quart or enough to make batter proper consisttency. Mix well, then add three level teaspoons baking soda dissolved in half cup warm but not boiling water. If all sweet milk is used, omit soda, use seven teaspoons baking powder.

Waffles—Four quarts thin sweet cream, one heaping cup baking powder, twentyfour eggs, nine teaspoons salt (level), eight quarts flour.

Cakes—For afternoon tea or when ice cream is served, recipes aggregating eight cupsful of flour. If cake is only dessert or for suppers and high teas, picnics, etc., cakes aggregating ten cupsful flour.

Baking Powder Biscuits—Four quarts flour, ten tablespoons baking powder, two and a quarter tablespoons salt, six cups milk, one cup shortening. For afternoon tea biscuit half this quantity will be sufficient.

Sandwiches—Three one and a half pound loaves for afternoon tea. For picnic, etc., four loaves. If tea buns, raisin bread, etc., is served, two and a half loaves will be sufficient for an afternoon tea. Two pounds butter will spread three loaves.

Butter—-Two pounds will serve fifty people.

Coffee—-Three gallons water, two and a quarter pounds coffee, two pinches salt, three eggs, will make sixty-six cups of coffee, permitting some second helpings.

Ice Cream, Salted Almonds, Sherberts, to Serve Fifty People

Ice Cream—Two gallons will serve fifty people; three and a half gallons will serve one hundred people.

Salted Almonds—Four pounds unshelled almonds. Two pounds shelled almonds.

Plain Ice Cream—Six cups granulated sugar, one and a quarter gals of cream, quarter cup flavoring.

Lemon Sherbet—hive quarts boiling water, five pounds sugar. Boil together five minutes, six stiffly beaten egg whites, three ounces dissolved gelatine, four cupsful of lemon juice. Freeze, turning crank of freezer slowly but steadily. When frozen remove dasher, pack freezer in ice and salt then let stand two hours to ripen.

Mint Sherbet—Add two cups chopped mint to above recipe.

Orange or Pineapple Sherbet—Use two quarts orange juice, one cup lemon juice; four cups grated pineapple, three cups lemon juice. If pineapple is sweetened, omit one pound of sugar.