A New Basis for Immigration

A novel suggestion from a writer who believes that co-operative community settlement would solve Canada's immigration problem

G. W. PEPYS-GOODCHILD November 15 1930

A New Basis for Immigration

A novel suggestion from a writer who believes that co-operative community settlement would solve Canada's immigration problem

G. W. PEPYS-GOODCHILD November 15 1930

A New Basis for Immigration

A novel suggestion from a writer who believes that co-operative community settlement would solve Canada's immigration problem


IN ONE of his famous after-the-war speeches, Mr. Lloyd George, as British Prime Minister, told the world that the inhabitants of the British Isles were a “C III” nation. He was referring to the findings of the medical examination boards which functioned under the compulsory military service act. While such dictum may have been largely justified, Great Britain can console herself with the fact that the findings of medical boards in other countries, particularly those with an industrial background, were very similar. Even in the United States, where the balance between agriculture and industry is far better maintained than it is in Great Britain, the number of rejects was surprisingly high.

The question of physical fitness is of prime importance when considering the transplantation of the individual. An industrial population, particularly one of the *‘C III” description, is utterly unsuited to the founding of isolated farms in the great Canadian Northwest.

The efforts of practically all the agencies directing their aim at an increase of Canada's population in the past have been bent on the settlement of assisted British immigrants on more or less isolated farms or homesteads. Such immigrants need a very considerable capacity for hard work and adaptability to novel conditions. They need capital for maintenance until the productive stage has been reached, intelligence of a high order, and a lot of grit, in order definitely to succeed.

Some of those elements are not possessed by the ordinary surplus British industrial worker. Properly trained, however, he is the most efficient worker to be found anywhere; and his loyalty, his honesty, his intelligence and his standards of life make him by far the most desirable immigrant that Canada can possibly have.

Unskilled Labor Useless

A MATERIAL factor militating against the pursuit r*. 0f agriculture in Canada by the uninitiated is to be found in the peculiar climatic conditions. The winters are not only severe but very long. The growing season is short. A maximum effort has to be concentrated upon the seeding and harvesting seasons.

This has led to a very considerable seasonal migration into the farming districts, particularly at harvesting time. The migratory worker, from many points of view, is an undesirable citizen. His earnings are uncertain and are all too easily spent. These men are perhaps the least provident of all wage earners. They seldom have family ties. Many have no allegiance to any home or country, and do not know what loyalty to an employer means.

In a community consisting of single farming units of limited acreage the migratory worker is an absolute

necessity. Mechanical progress has done much to reduce the number of temporary helpers thus needed. The aids offered by industry are, however, not readily available to the homesteader on account of their cost. In order to operate to the best advantage these machines need large acreages. The incidence of the ploughing and harvesting operations would seem to make it very difficult to secure the desired result by broad co-operative methods.

The Canadian farmer has no use for unskilled help. That fact accounts for the so largely abortive experiment when British industrial workers were imported for harvesting operations. When the call comes, the Canadian farmer has to work with the utmost speed and efficiency. The Canadian migratory worker has the essential experience and skill. Otherwise he finds himself just as quickly back on the road as did a number of imported British miners. The Canadian farmer has no time to teach the newcomer. Adult apprentices, particularly those with fixed ideas about trade unions and hours of work, are not wanted. Canadian farming methods may be rough and ready but they are highly efficient. When the farmer needs help it must be as efficient as he is himself.

These facts, necessitated by climatic conditions, plus the frequently questionable methods of immigration and land agencies, are responsible for the regrettable circumstances under which many immigrant prairie farmers live. Quite a few of them eventually drift back to the cities, and the cities, unable to absorb these failures, try to ship them back to Great Britain.

An idea prevails in wide agricultural circles that the comparatively low price level for those commodities which depend on the world market points to an overproduction thereof. Yet there are many millions of Europeans and Asiatics who are decidedly underfed. These form a very potential market for Canadian produce. The task is to reduce production costs to such a point that these underfed millions can afford to purchase Canadian cereals and other foods. The reasoning that there is a surfeit of produce and a lack of markets, and that consequently further agricultural immigration is not wanted, cannot be justified wffiile many thousands are starving.

At the same time it is surprising that Canada should regularly import huge quantities of foods and other agricultural products, which can just as easily and at least as well be grown in the Dominion.

The latest available yearly statistics—covering the

twelve-month period ending March, 1929, show that Canada imported during that time wheat, oats, barley and rye to the extent of $2,466,446. Perhaps a considerable part thereof was in transit to other countries. The total importations of food for human consumption under the headings of fruit and vegetables (fresh, dried and canned); grains (natural, milled and prepared); meats (fresh, chilled, pickled, canned, dried and smoked); milk, butter, cheese, eggs and such like amounted during that time to $121,477,703. Deducting all tropical and semi-tropical produce, there remain importations to the astounding total of $77,272,177.

In addition, Canada imported during the same period raw flax ánd hemp to the extent of $1,945,575. That figure includes the net importations of binder twine. If the various other vegetable fibres are included, the total importations under the same heading are swelled to $8,304,124. Raw wool totalled $5,666,715; hides, skins and unmanufactured leather, $18,438,369.

These figures go a long way to show that in certain directions theire is ample room for the extension of agricultural activity in the Dominion.

Raw cotton, which in the not too distant future may find a strong competitor in the far superior hemp and flax fibres, was imported to the extent of $29,333,607. Excluding that item, however, we arrive at total importations of agricultural produce, under these few headings only, of $103,322,836. The list is not by any means complete. It could be very materially extended if the importations of manufactured articles produced from these raw materials were included.

In the light of these figures it is not unreasonable to say that Canada could support an additional 50,000 families in farming operations without adding anything to her exportable surplus. Incidentally, the home market is rapidly expanding. Industries are springing up in all sections, even in the prairie provinces, depending on the farmer for their market. The wealth of those parts in natural gas, oil, minerals and water power is so great that these provinces will gradually become largely independent from industrial Ontario or from American importations of fabricated goods.

An intensive study of all the underlying facts, both in Great Britain and in Canada, has gradually ripened with the writer a plan for the solution of Canada’s problem which would seem to have all the essentials of success.

Great Britain has an excess of population; Canada needs a larger population. The British excess is largely unsuitable for settlement in Canada under existing conditions. The task is to create conditions enabling the absorption of the inherently desirable British population by Canada. The conditions must be such as to lead to reasonably quick results on a fairly extensive scale. Few corporations have an altruistic background. They are conceived and run for the financial benefit of the stockholders. Wherever the worker takes an active part in the management, apart from his manual effort, and thus participates in the responsibilities of an industrial establishment, the results have been freedom from labor difficulties, increased efficiency, and higher returns. What has been proved in countless cases under factory conditions will repeat itself in industrialized farming.

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A New Basis for Immigration

Continued from page 12

The solution proposed embodies the combination of agriculture and industry; agriculture under industrialized conditions for the creation of raw materials for manufacturing on the spot; agriculture perhaps as the predominant partner in the enterprise, industry as a secondary factor mainly during the long winter months.

Such a solution can be realized in the creation of community settlements on a co-operative basis. Large scale, industrialized farming operations, specialized under expert Canadian guidance. Diversified farming on departmental lines. An industrial background depending upon the agricultural produce of the settlement for its raw material. The market for manufactured goods to be primarily within the settlement and secondarily in the adjoining districts. The surplus, both agriculturally and industrially, if any, to compete in the world markets.

Henry Ford, the great industrial pioneer, has shown the wray. In purely agricultural communities he has established winter industries. By utilizing existing conditions, he raises the standard of living among the tillers of the soil. In the past he has set new standards for the industrial workers. Now he makes these same standards available for the farmer.

It will be easier to create conditions resembling those utilized by Henry Ford than to implant them on existing communities. The conditions should eliminate the great hazards of farming in so far as that is possible. They must be based upon the latest findings of scientific management. They must utilize the best experiences of mass production, both agriculturally and industrially. They must offer reasonable expectations for adequate financial returns. They must be adapted to the mental attitude and to th3 social habits of the British industrial worker. Finally, they must include such earning possibilities that the wage earner in turn will become a consumer of those products of industry which today are for him very largely unattainable luxuries.

The last point, to the writer’s mind, forms the broad basis of the industrial advance in the United States. It keeps money in circulation, maintains huge industries, creates high standards of material comfort, and thus lays the foundation for a better spiritual life.

Co-operative Settlements

V\ 7HILE the experience of community W settlements has not been uniformly satisfactory, yet there are today quite a number of such settlements operating successfully in the Dominion. There are some with a religious, others with a nationality, background. Thus we have Ukrainian, Hungarian, German, Austrian and Scottish community settlements. Then there are Mennonite, Mormon and Doukhobor settlements. Their members very largely are difficult to assimilate into the body politic of the Dominion because there is no leavening of Canadian


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ideas and ideals. Some of their conceptions may not appeal to the AngloSaxon. Yet they are happy and successful as farmers and as settlers. They draw others from their former homes. If the process continues long enough there is grave risk of a gradual submersion of the Anglo-Saxon strain which may eventually involve the larger question of British solidarity.

The tracts formed by these communities frequently exceed a hundred thousand acres. Some are composed of individually owned farms. Others work largely on co-operative or even communistic lines. Quite a fewr of them are self-contained to a considerable degree. They make a large part of their farming equipment, of their leather goods, and of their clothing.

The Doukhobors have established a very prosperous fruit and vegetable canning industry, reputed to do a business exceeding $500,000 annually. They live far better and far healthier lives than does the bulk of the British industrial population. Were it not for their peculiar attitude toward state and school, Canada would undoubtedly welcome more immigrants of their type.

Within the last few years agricultural methods have experienced a revolution w-hich is bound deeply to affect the small individual farmer. The never ceasing advance of science and industry has developed machinery, which has resulted in a very material reduction of manpower wherever it is employed. On a large farm in Southern Alberta eighteen men harvested and threshed daily between eight and ten thousand bushels of wheat, whereas three years ago the same work would have required sixty men. Cutting by binder and stooking would have required another twenty-five or thirty men. Thus, today eighteen men in the field can do the same amount of work which three years ago would have needed ninety men. That is equivalent to a reduction of eighty per cent in the labor force for the harvesting operations.

In seeding, similar strides have been made. One man with tractor and fiftyseven-inch drill can sow eighty to one hundred acres per day as against twenty to twenty-five acres with the seeding implements available five or ten years ago. Here again the output per man has been quadrupled within very few years. Power equipment is beginning to do the same thing for the farmer which it has accomplished for industry. The result is bound to affect eventually the price of the commodity to the ultimate consumer. That will mean a broadening of the markets for Canadian agricultural produce.

The United States Chamber of Commerce instituted a sharply analytical research into the operations of largescale farms, and the only drawbacks mentioned in regard thereto were: “The difficulty in securing sufficient labor and in securing the degree of interest of the laborers in the success of the business.”

If the large-scale community farm were co-operatively owned and operated under the expert guidance of men who were members of the settlement, then these drawbacks of industrialized large-scale farming would disappear and only its acknowledged advantages would remain. With mechanical equipment, financial success is bound to follow.

Only in large-scale farming is it possible to utilize mechanical equipment to the utmost advantage; only then is it possible to departmentalize and to arrive at a balanced output; only then can experts be employed to supervise operations in each line of effort.

In exactly the same way as the factory has displaced home industries, so will large-scale farming eventually displace the family farm. All the portents point that way, and it seems waste of effort to persist in the advocacy of homesteading. That does not mean that the individual farm will entirely disappear, just as the factory has not entirely eliminated the individual craftsman or the independent artisan. Our economic structure demands both classes of producers. The large-scale farm for staple products; the small farm for fancy lines, such as vegetables, fruit and flowers, as well as for the most important production of pure seeds.

The Scheme in Outline

rT'HE settlement company which the writer has in mind would have to be so constituted that the settlers would automatically acquire from their earnings as industrial community workers their shareholding in the company. Such could be arranged in the form of compulsory savings-bank accounts. These savings would not carry any definite rate of interest, neither could they be drawn upon indiscriminately. Whenever the individual deposit reached a certain minimum it would be exchanged against a “worker” share in the company. There could be no free trade in such shares. If any settler wanted to leave the community the stock held by him would gradually have to be acquired by a newcomer. Meanwhile the former owner would have the benefit of the dividends only. While such arrangement might be construed to mean a restriction of free movement, such is not more the case than applies to anyone who invests his labor in a homestead. Naturally the aim of the management must be to make the settlement so attractive that only exceptional irrevocable departures would occur.

Three classes of common stock are suggested, all of equal size. If Government participation can be secured, the first class would go to the Government or to such other parties as might obligate themselves to guarantee the interest on the preferred stock. The second class would become available for acquisition or grant, or both, by or to the management. The third class would be reserved entirely for gradual acquisition by the workers as part wages.

In this manner a fair distribution of the profit-earning capacity of the venture would be assured.

The capital would, in all probability, have to be secured to a large extent in Great Britain. Such would preferably all be covered by preferred stock. If a strong management can be found, offering in itself the essentials for success, it might be hoped that the purchase price for the land could be settled in the same security. As the bulk of t,he assets would consist of land and buildings, the security for the preferred stock would be of the highest order. There are many millions of fertile acres awaiting the arrival of the plough, and thus the land should be bought at a nominal price.

The risks undertaken by the subscribers to the preferred stock would be compensated for by the one-third participation in the profits after payment of preferred interest. The management, through its stock participation, would have every incentive for making the settlement a success. The workers would share therein in accordance with their individual effort and value to the enterprise.

The average earnings of several hundred large-scale farms investigated by the

United States Chamber of Commerce are given by that institute as amounting to 6}-i per cent on the invested capital. Land in all those cases had been bought at current rates, and labor rates varied from $2.50 to $6 per day. None of these offered permanent employment throughout the year, as provided for under the present scheme.

The profit-earning capacity would be very largely supplemented, if not exceeded, by the returns from the seasonal ufinter activities. This combination of industry and agriculture will enable the full utilization of man-power on such settlement. Only by such combination will the establishment of a higher standard of living among the settlers become a possibility. The total result is bound to show itself in safe and comparatively high returns on the investment, a high standard of living among the settlers, and consequent contentment all around.

Farming Towns

rT'HE ideal basis for such a venture would seem to be a unit of from 300 to 500 families. Such would require a total area of from 60,000 to 100,000 acres, or 200 acres per family. Three quarters of the land, at least, must be suitable for cultivation.

Settlements of this size form little towns that offer all the amenities of social life and intercourse. They warrant the installation of modern sanitation, electric light, proper schools, religious services, recreation centres, bakeries and laundries, and all those other things which differentiate modern town life from the crudities under which isolated farmers so largely vegetate. They are large enough to support a fair number of artisans and appreciable industrial establishments. In the summer they serve as reservoirs for agricultural labor and in the winter for manning the industrial workshops.

Considering the activities of the settlers there is, first of all, agriculture. Largescale farming can to a remarkable degree be approximated to manufacturing conditions. Similarly, as all mass production aims at the employment of a few highlyskilled men and the performance of the manual work by the unskilled, so can large-scale farming employ highly trained and efficient experts as department managers and foremen.

Any untrained industrial laborer can perform the actual work under proper guidance. A truck driver can, with practically no further training, manipulate a tractor or a gangplow. One caterpillar tractor, with a multiple plow and needing only one semi-skilled driver and perhaps an unskilled helper, can easily deal with fifty acres per day. These machines can be run in double or treble shifts. That is impossible with horses. A skilled ploughman with the best team cannot cover more than three acres per day under the most favorable circumstances, and at the end of the day both man and beast are exhausted.

In a previous paragraph it was shown what the combined reaper and thresher can accomplish. The operator is preferably a mechanic. The work is learned in as many hours as it took years to learn the handling of sickle and flail. Similarly, seeding, cultivating, harrowing and all the manifold activities on the land are today performed by mechanized implements which are all too infrequently power driven. The performance of these power equipments is equal in quality and far superior in quantity to that accomplished by a highly skilled handworker, even when assisted by the best team.

For its economic utilization big machinery needs big fields. Furrows several miles long are cheaper to draw with powrer outfits than short furrows with horses. This, notwithstanding the fact that oil and gasoline have to be bought and that the machinery is subject to heavy depreciation, while horses may be reared on the farm and the food be provided by nature.

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The men in charge of operations, or in other words the departmental managers, would be highly trained and experienced Canadians, each an expert in his particular line.

The personal skill of the individual worker would be largely eliminated, the output per man vastly increased. British industrial labor is perfectly capable of performing all the manual operations. Trained foremen would lead the men in gangs, the more intelligent acting as foremen.

The only work requiring independent thinking and experience would be that in connection with livestock. Here again experienced Canadians would largely take over departmental control. Classes could be established to teach the newcomer what he should know.

With an ultimate establishment of from 300 to 500 dairy cattle, which only represents one"cow per family, it would pay to have highly trained veterinaries and dairymen in charge. These animals would be housed under the most sanitary conditions. The work of feeding and watering and milking could be reduced to practically factory conditions. The regularity of attention the animals would enjoy under such circumstances is bound to lead to far more efficient results than can possibly be obtained on the small individual farm. There would be high yields and little disease.

Similarly, poultry requires a great deal of skilled attention to be really profitable. Flocks of from 11,000 to 15,000 birds would warrant the erection of special houses for hatching, for the cold storage of winter eggs, and for housing the birds.

Winter production of eggs is the most profitable, but it needs special arrangements which the ordinary farmer cannot provide. Some 1,138,000 dozen eggs representing $395,513 in value were imported into the Dominion in the twelve months ending March, 1929. That represents a wholesale value of over thirty-four cents per dozen, a price w'hich pays the farmer very handsomely. A flock of 15,000 birds should yield over 100,000 dozen eggs for the market and leave plenty over for the needs of the settlement. When handling such a flock on a co-operative basis, the employment of specialists for the supervision of breeding, culling, trap-nesting and feeding is unquestionably warranted. That one item alone represents an income of over $34,000 in the budget of the settlement. This, of course, quite apart from the value of eggs and meat consumed by the settlers.

The results from a flock run on the lines as sketched are bound to vastly exceed those obtained from the same number of nondescript birds on the individual farm.

What applies to chickens applies not only to other farm fowl but to hogs, sheep and horses. The greater the number of each, the easier it will be to specialize in each line. In the community settlement it would be done departmentally.

The whole problem w'ould be one of organization—the application of science in place of hit and miss methods, the substitution of knowledge for guess work, the gradual training of the industrial worker to specialized agricultural work conducted on industrialized mass production lines.

Meanwhile there are in all departments a very large number of operations which can be performed equally well by women as by men.

Winter Industries

TN ORDER usefully to employ those

members of the settlement during the winter months who are not engaged in the animal husbandry departments or in the communal services, industrial opportunities would have to be provided. These would have to be of a seasonal

nature, to liberate labor for field operations whenever such have to be performed. As already stated, the raw material for such industries must be products of the agricultural activity of the settlement itself. If there is any timber on the land, such could be worked up into fence posts, into building material, or even into plain furniture.

Of far greater importance would be the production of fibre from hemp and flax. Machinery is being developed which holds out great promise of bringing these valuable fibres back to their former predominance and thus make heavy inroads on the consumption of jute, cotton and sisal. Canada imported raw fibre during the twelve months ending March, 1929, to the value of $6,708,659. During the same period the importations of raw cotton amounted to $29,333,607. Here is a vast field for the reduction of imports and the substitution of Canadian agricultural produce. Canada offers ideal conditions for growing both hemp and flax. Decortication can commence as soon as the crop is harvested and retted. The fibre has a ready world market. It can be improved into cordages and coarser textiles on the spot. Even if local production costs should be materially higher than they are at the large centres of production, the great distance from such factories with the resulting heavy freight rates on finished articles, will enable competition on even terms. The growing of these fibres results in certain by-products which can readily be worked up into paper, strawboard, insulating material, etc., for home consumption.

Another line is the production of leather from the hides of animals killed or fallen on the settlement. Belting and harness may follow. The settlement itself would be a considerable consumer of both.

There would be also the manufacture of flour from wheat, oats, peas and potatoes, this not only for home consumption but also for further improvement into macaroni, breakfast foods and similar articles. Today the farmer gets only about lAc out of every loaf sold to the city dweller for ten cents.

The pickling of pork, the manufacture of sausage, the preparation of beef, mutton and poultry for the market offers additional outlets. Here again it would be well to follow the latest practices of the great packing houses. They ship their produce ready packaged for the housewife to carry away.

The manufacture of sugar from sugar beet is everywhere confined to the winter months. Such would take more capital than the community settlement could afford to spend on one single enterprise, but joint action with similar settlements might be arranged.

The maintenance of farm equipment and machinery offers further industrial activity during the winter months. The list could be extended indefinitely but these few major examples may suffice.

None of these activities can be pursued by the individual homesteader. He cannot leave his farm even for a day unless his wife meanwhile attends to the livestock. If he does go to a lumber camp or into a mining area in the winter time, he has to meet travelling expenses and takes the risk of finding a job. Trade conditions may make it impossible for him to earn a few dollars to tide him over a crop failure. Scientific large-scale diversified farming is bound to result in an insurance against crop failures. A poor season could not affect such community settlement to nearly the same degree as it is bound to affect the individual farmer who so frequently puts all his eggs into one basket.

A certain proportion of the settlers— perhaps the more elderly members thereof —would be employed in the community services. There would be the light, heat, water and power plants to attend to. Then there would be the sanitary services and the supplies of the daily needs in Continued from page 38 regard to food and clothing. Washing day on the farm in the winter is a nightmare for the housewife. Laundry machinery and the provision of drying and ironing rooms can only be made available if the number of people is sufficient to warrant the installation. Then there would be the community creche, where youngsters could be left under the care of a proper staff while both parents were at work.

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There would also be a community dairy, which in itself is no novel departure from present day practices. The great difference, however, would be that the separation of cream and milk would take place under proper sanitary conditions, which are so frequently neglected on the individual farm. Combined therewith would be a cheese factory. The skimmed milk would go to the hogs and other livestock.

Another line, though not suitable for winter work, is the canning of fruit and vegetables for winter consumption. In all these efforts a considerable number of women—also of the industrial class— could find employment under conditions which very closely approach those in Great Britain.

Good Management Necessary

TF THE enterprise is correctly con•T ceived and adequately financed, the only other factor to a successful issue lies in the management. The general manager would have to be a man thoroughly familiar with Canadian farming conditions. He would have to be an organizer and a natural leader of men. He would have to have vision and at the same time have a sense of commercial responsibility. He would have to be a good public speaker. Such men are not plentiful but they can be found.

Of almost equal importance would be the position of the secretary. He would have to be a man with industrial costing as well as banking experience. The whole finances would devolve on him. He would control all purchases as well as sales. Of course he would be assisted by a competent staff, most of whom could be taken from Great Britain.

Then there would be an architect in charge of all building activity, as well as of the sanitary services. There would be a professional educator to attend to the manifold schooling activities. There would be a mechanical engineer to take care of the various industrial activities, as well as of the maintenance of plant and agricultural machinery.

Going down the line, we come to the various agricultural experts. There would be the Canadian agronomist in charge of all field operations, the selection of seeds and the preparation of the grain for shipment. There would be Canadian expert dairymen, poultrymen, horticulturists, and so forth. The departmental chiefs, together with the general manager and the secretary, would form the board of management. Their offices should all be housed in the same building whence the administration of the settlement would issue. In this way a highly efficient co-operative management could be definitely secured.

The farmer lives closer to nature than does any other worker. He knows that nature cannot be cheated. That accounts for the fact that farmers as a class are more honest than any other class. It also accounts for the fact that most farmers are excellent financiers in their own line of business. An agricultural venture can only succeed if the closest scrutiny is exercised over all expenditure. In order to make such community settlement on a co-operative limited liability basis a financial success, the whole monetary policy would have to be most carefully planned and watched.

A detailed study of the expenditure involved in the transportation, the maintenance and the housing of 500 families until the productive stage has been

reached, the purchase of livestock, implements and industrial equipment, the services of the experts in the various lines and so forth, shows that it would be unwise to launch the experiment unless an amount of $10,000 per family could be made available. A considerable proportion of that amount would be spent in Great Britain, and on account of the large-scale lines of the enterprise a great number of savings could be effected which are utterly beyond the reach of the individual settler.

Some Basic Needs

HPHE programme involves a considerable amount of team work, but that is the kind of effort at which the Englishman excels. It would, however, be desirable to choose the prospective settlers from the same district or town. Such facilitates co-operative effort. It makes it easier for the womenfolk to tear themselves from accustomed surroundings. The intimate contact with Canadian experts and their families, a sustained educational effort, and the whole atmosphere of such settlement would tend toward quick assimilation of Canadian ideas and ideals.

Eminent medical authorities tend more and more to the view that the majority of human ailments are solely and entirely due to improper feeding. Thus one of the primary objects of the leaders would be to so arrange the dietary of the settlers as to eliminate the “C III” features of the industrial workers. That can be done and it most certainly should be done. With a dietitian in charge of the pioneers from the date of sailing, and with compulsory training of housewives in the art of selecting and preparing food for human consumption there would be a great improvement in the physique and mental outlook of the settlers.

As is evident from the foregoing, there would be a strong element of highly educated people among the managerial staff. That fact would dispel the monotony of isolated farm life, and provide the foundation for a higher individual and spiritual life.

There would be also a number of skilled manual workers, such as concrete men, carpenters, plasterers, laundrymen, bakers, engineers and electricians, to mention a few. They all would have to unlearn a good deal of what they considered the right and only way of doing things. They would learn that methods have been devised outside the British Isles which are more in accord with local needs and therefore more efficient.

There could be no classes and no class distinctions on the settlement. Every honest worker would have every chance of advancement. Every intelligent and worthy boy or girl would have the opportunity of a university education at the expense of the community. There would be no possibility for the accumulation of great wealth by the individual. But there would be every facility for leading a healthy, contented life, with no worry as to where tomorrow’s rent was to be found.

Some of the proposals contained in these lines may strike many an older reader as smacking of advanced socialism. The writer contends that inherently they constitute nothing but a sound business proposition.

The Dominion of Canada with its vast empty spaces, with its immense undeveloped resources and its progressive spirit, offers room for hundreds of such settlements. There is no reason why the same or similar ideas should not be applied in other parts of the Empire. It is hoped that these suggestions may induce someone with vision and enterprise and with the necessary following to undertake the preliminary steps. These ideas have been placed before some men standing high in the public opinion of Canada and their comments have been very favorable.

It needs only a real statesman to give the project leadership.