You Can’t Beat the Dutch
Unloading Canadian grain at Antwerp. The Dutch-Belgian market is Canada’s best European market.
ALONG the dykes of the Netherlands, Dutch fishermen go down to their boats in Canadian rubber boots. In spotless blue and white kitchens, Dutch housewives bake their bread
from flour which usually contains at least a percentage of Canadian wheat. Dutch gardeners cultivate the famous tulip and hyacinth beds with Canadian garden tools; Dutch bakers make their honey-cake with Canadian buckwheat honey; and Dutch builders are making increasing use of Canadian insulating wallboard in the construction of the ultra-modern apartment houses, department stores, cafés and theatres which are springing up all over Holland.
In Belgium, Canadian foods are on display everywhere. Amid the old-world atmosphere of the open-air fruit and vegetable markets, baskets of Canadian apples are for sale. In the little épiceries, golden drums of Canadian Cheddar cheese are piled one atop another. And in the grocery departments of the overcrowded, bazaar-like department stores, cans of Canadian salmon and lobster are arranged in artistic pyramids.
At the great ports of Antwerp and Rotterdam, there is scarcely ever a time when ships from Canada are not to be seen unloading—boxes and bags and crates being swung down on the dock side, while on the harbor side the floating grain elevators suck the grain-up from the lowest depths of the ship and pour it down into the barges, which carry it inland through the network of canals and rivers to its destination in the various towns of Holland, Belgium, Germany or even Switzerland.
Such scenes as these are the visible evidences of the statistical fact that little Holland is Canada’s third best customer, and that Belgium is a close runner-up; sometimes m fourth, sometimes in fifth place. Together, they take some $30,000,000 worth of goods annually, or approximately onefifth of Canada s exports to all countries except the United Kingdom and the United States. These two small countries, with their closely packed population and their large entrepôt trade, take more Canadian produce than all Asia, or than Oceania, South America and Africa combined.
Small though the Dutch and Belgian trade may seem ™en compared with Canada’s markets in the United Kingdom and the U nited States, which together take over seventy per cent of the Dominion’s exports, it is a market of great importance in Canada’s development of a world-wide trade.
Since the beginning of the century, Canada’s trade with
“Other Countries” (other than the U. K. and the U. S. ) has gone ahead by leaps and bounds. In BXX), the United Kingdom and the United States took 91.3 ]x-r cent of Canada’s domestic exports, only 8.7 ixr cent going to Other Countries. A third of a century later, in 1933, the exports going to Other Countries had risen to thirty jx-r cent, nearly half of which went to Europe.
For the fiscal year ending March 31, 1934, the volume of ex|xirts to Other Countries increased slightly, but the IXTcentage fell to 27.1.
We hear a great deal in Canada about potent ial markets in the Orient, almost nothing about existing markets in Europe; yet the fact remains that, after the United Kingdom and the United States, Europe is Canada’s best customer. In this European market, the Netherlands and Belgium hold a dominant position. Not only have they a population of about 8,(XX),(XX) each, making a combined population a third larger than that of Canada, concentrated in an area not much bigger than Nova Scotia; not only do they take 42.6 per cent of Canadian exports to Europe, but they are the point of entry to a much larger European market, and the connecting link with their colonial possessions such as the Belgian Congo and the Dutch East Indies.
Pre-eminently trading nations, Holland and Belgium have suffered severely from the world economic crisis and from exchange fluctuations, quotas, embargoes and tariffs in other countries; yet, in spite of the blows to their trade and shipping, they have remained remarkably stable. And it is worth noting that Canada's exports to the Netherlands have gone up during a period when her exports to almost every other country decreased. The comparative stability of the Holland-Belgium market is shown by the following figures of Canadian exports to these countries during the past three years;
1931 1932 1933 Holland $13.572,765 SI 6.907.307 $18.440.912 Belgium 14,387,271 14.948.482 12,338*234 T otal 27,960,036 31,855,789 30,779.146
Furthermore, in the development of Canada’s world trade outside of the neighboring United States market and the preferential British market, the Holland-Belgium market is an excellent test laboratory of what the Dominion can and cannot do in competition with the other countries of the world in an open market. Here she must measure her prices against those of Japan and Russia; her merchandising skill against that of Germany, the United States, France, Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries. These are the tests a Canadian product must meet in order to be "competitive” in the world market.
Price is Paramount
THE all-importance of price is the thing that, first and last, strikes the visitor to the I >utch and Belgian markets most forcibly.
“Price, price, always, always. Quality is very secondary,” a Canadian trade exjx:rt with long experience of these markets told me during my first days in Belgium, and what I saw and heard afterward in both countries only confirmed and emphasized his statement.
My first glimpse of Canadian gcxxls on sale in Belgium was at the marketplace in the Place Sainte Catherine in Brussels. It is just such a market place as one expects to find in an Old World city --the great church looking down with calm aloofness on the crazy-quilt pattern of the stalls and awnings and umbrellas of the fruit and vegetable vendors in the square. It is crowded and bustling and noisy and colorful. Never have I seen such an intensity of selling. The weatherbeaten old women and the rosy-cheeked, buxom younger women cry their wares as though their lives depended on it. The idea seems to Ix» that the loudest voice wins, and their voices grow raucous with trying to drown each other out. It was here that I saw a barrel of red apples labelled painstakingly in zigzag letters, Pommes du Canada.
The old woman in charge of the stall, quick to notice my momentary pause, scented a possible customer and instantly
burst into a torrent oí praise of her pommes du Canada. They were the reddest, the sweetest, in fact the very best apples in the whole market; and the price, but how reasonable! So she assured me, her voice growing ever louder, her gesticulations more vehement, her gaze more compelling, as a woman in a stall across the way took up the cry of Pommes du Canada in an effort to distract my attention.
But I was not buying apples that day; instead, I was observing buyt.r of apples. And the women I saw thronging the marketplace that day were w'omen who wore cheap, flat-soled shoes or carpet slippers; rough, shapeless stockings, and clothes made of coarse, durable materials. They were the wives of men who worked for fifteen to twenty-five cents an hour in the trades and shops around Brussels. They were the mothers of large families. They were women who must make a little money go a long, long way; or, as one Belgian apple importer remarked in explanation of the unpopularity of large apples in the Belgian market, they want “much pieces for little money." When they go to the marketplaces to buy their supplies of fcxxJ, the difference of a few centimes in price may make all the difference between their purchase of one thing or another.
What is true of the price in the fruit and vegetable markets of Ste. Catherine is equally true of the butter, egg and cheese market of St. Géry, five minutes walk distant, where Canadian Cheddar is invariably to be seen beside the Roquefort, the Holland, the Swiss, the Limburger and other European cheeses. It is equally true of the flower market in the Grande Place, of the meat market at Les Halles Centrales, and of the fish market between the Quai au Bois à Brûler and the Quai aux Briques, where the fishmongers who spread their glistening, slipjx-ry wares on the wet slabs are as strong and hearty as the all-pervading smell of fish.
To look at the crowded, bustling marketplaces, one would think that all Belgian shopping was done here, but that would be far from the truth. Countless little retail stores st?II the various kinds of food: and in the big cities, the department stores do a large trade in groceries. The grocery departments of these stores are the nearest equivalent to our general grocery store; the little shops are usually much more highly specialized than ours. There will be a charcuterie where only sausages, hams, pâté de fois gras and similar focxls are on sale; next to it will lx* an épicerie, dealing only in cheese, butter, eggs and canned goods, or a perdurier specializing in green groceries. There are patisseries for cakes and pastries, and other little shops which carry nothing but honey-cake, the whole window filled with the golden-brown pain d'épice in all shapes and sizes from small cookies to huge loaves. Free from the wild scramble of the markets, you can do your shopping quietly and unhurriedly in these shops. You will be waited on with smiling, polite attention usually by the shopowmer or his wife. Here shopping is a gentler art; but the housewife is no less careful of every sou, and her trop cher has a thumbsdown finality.
Even in the big department stores, some of which are built on the most modem luxury lines, one finds the same basic price trade.
In Holland, the market plays a lesser part, the store a larger part than in Belgium. The stores, particularly the department stores, are more like the ones to which we are accustomed on this continent. The Belgian department stores have borrowed the technique of the street fair. Narrow aisles run between counters literally heaped with goods above which are all sorts of bright colored signs advertising the goods and the price. Everything is made to look like a bargain; a Belgian store on an ordinary day looks as if it were having a fire sale. Perhaps the Dutch are a less volatile and more orderly race. At all events, their department stores, if less exciting, are more spacious and shipshape and altogether more comfortable for shopping. Everything is
very neat, each article has its place, the counters are kept comparatively clear, and some of the best store and window dressing
have ever seen, I saw in Holland.
One of the most striking examples of a modernistic department store is De Bijenkorf in Rotterdam. So that the very latest merchandising ideas might be incorporated into the new building of "The Bee-Hive," its officials toured North America on a department store pilgrimage, which included not only the emporiums of Fifth Avenue and Michigan Boulevard but the department stores of Toronto. The result is a building whose lines and angles by day, and whose light and shadow by night, dominate the Coolsingel—the main street of Rotterdam. It has the most modem elevator service, the latest thing in roof gardens; the most up-todate beauty salon; marble staircases; and floor-walkers who can speak half a dozen languages. The show cases tempt you with expensive, imported French novelties. If you know where to look, you may find a few things from Canada—rubber gloves, for instance; perhaps some canned fruit or some novelty such as jigsaw puzzles. But behind the outward appearance of a luxury store, De Bijenkorf stocks its shelves plentifully with the cheaper grades of goods. Rotterdam is not a fashionable city like the Hague; it is a port town, a commercial town; and in consequence, most of De Bijenkorf’s cus-
Itomers housewives are who extremely spend their practical guilders Dutch with great care. These Rotterdam women may be proud that their city has such a modem store, they may like to feast their eyes on what Paris is wearing; but when they come to buy, they will purchase heavy, thick cotton or woollen underwear, solid, durable house-furnishings, the cheapest brands of canned goods. The price will be the deciding factor every time.
The only exception to this inexorable price domination is the luxury trade. One has only to wander among the magnificent homes and gardens of the residential sections of the Hague between the Peace Palace and Scheveningen, or to watch the elegantly dressed people in the expensive cafés of Brussels, or to window-shop among the china, silver, jewellery and art stores of Amsterdam, to realize that there is great wealth in Holland and Belgium. The native luxury trade is augmented by the EnglishAmerican colonies, with their demand for imports of the things they have been used to at home, and by the tourist traffic, which goes a long way to supporting the luxury
a still with hotels offers the price and a trade. mass the very trade—and luxury limited stores. market the But compared mass the trade total is
The second thing that impresses one about the Holland-Belgium market is that it is a changing, developing market. There is an all too prevalent tendency on this side of the Atlantic to think of Europe as a back number. Our mental picture is apt to be a postcard impression of antique buildings and quaint costumes. Yet when Europe goes modem, it is more modem than we dream of being in our most daring moments. The most vivid reality in Europe today is the contrast of the old and the new—and no two countries provide better examples than Holland and Belgium.
As Canadian cargo boats come up the Scheldt to Antwerp, their first glimpse of the skyline of the ancient Flemish city reveals two towers rising behind the docks and
¡warehouses spire of Antwerp along the Cathedral, waterfront. famous One for is the its Rubens’ “Descent from the Cross;” the other is Antwerp’s twenty-three story skyscraper, the Farmer’s Bank Building, which looks like a bit of America planted in the heart of the business section.
In Holland, you find modernistic blackand-blue-and-silver schoolhouses in little fishing villages where the women still wear their native headdress. Everywhere you see new houses, new stores, new apartments, new hotels, new theatres, new civic buildings being erected. A person who had not visited Rotterdam since the war would scarcely recognize Holland’s second city.
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Little over ten years ago, the Coolsingel was a canal; today it is the main street of Rotterdam, with a new post-office and a new Raadhuis (townhall) on the east side, a new modernistic hotel on the west, and De Bijenkorf at the southern end.
And while styles of building have been changing, the motion pictures and radio have been transforming the amusements of these countries; the automobile, their mode of transportation; modem machinery, their industries. The native costumes have been gradually giving way to the standard European clothing; even their taste in food has been altered to some extent, as witness the ubiquitous ice cream which was an almost unknown delicacy twenty years ago. Because a market for a certain product does not exist in I lolland or Belgium today is no reason for thinking that such a market might not be created ten years from now.
Y\ THAT IS the present-day situation as
*Y regards the marketing of Canadian products in the competitive price markets of these new-old countries?
To answer this question, I studied the markets and interviewed importers of Canadian goods in Brussels, Antwerp, Rotterdam, the Hague and Amsterdam. My most sincere thanks are due M. Henri Turcot, Canadian Trade Commissioner to Belgium, and Mr. J. C. MacGillivray, Canadian Trade Commissioner to the Netherlands, to whom 1 am greatly indebted for assistance in arranging these interviews and for their kindness in placing at my disposal the services of their secretaries as guide-interpreters.
Canadian imports into Belgium labor under the disadvantage of a discriminatory turnover tax, which went into force nearly two years ago in retaliation against the Canadian duties on Belgian steel. A very unbalanced trade situation exists between the two countries, Canadian exports to Belgium during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1933, having been $14,490,939 as against imports from Belgium of only $3,642,518; so Belgium’s desire to redress this balance is easily understandable. Wheat, which Belgium must have and
which is her largest import from Canada, is an exception; but practically all other Canadian products must pay a tax of from two and a half to five per cent higher than those from other countries. This has had a particularly disastrous effect on products which were already having all they could do to hold the market against Japanese competition.
When I was in Belgium, I found the greatest concern being felt for the fate of the Canadian canned salmon trade. A couple of years ago the market for the Canadian salmon seemed to be firmly established. The Belgians, who eat a great deal of salmon, considered the Canadian brand the very best; it was widely advertised; and the Canadian label on a can was looked upon as the hallmark of quality. But now that trade is tottering.
I went to the grocery department of a large Brussels department store. There must have been a dozen different brands of canned salmon on sale there, ranging in price from 3.75 to 4.25 francs. There were cans of Canadian salmon, and cans that looked like Canadian salmon but were not. I was told that these other cans were Japanese salmon under labels so similar to the Canadian that the uninitiated buyer could easily mistake them for one another. Some of the labels had beavers on them, and others bore the names of Canadian cities. There was also Alaska salmon, and Japanese salmon that said plainly what it was. But in every case, with or without disguise, the Japanese salmon was well under the price of the Canadian.
In response to my question as to how the Canadian salmon was received by the customers, the clerk brightened up perceptibly and replied:
“Oh, it is the very best salmon. It is liked very much indeed. The Japanese salmon, people do not consider it such a good quality, but"—with a shrug of the shoulders —“many people, very many people, prefer to buy not quite so good a salmon at the lower price."
In cold statistics, this preference of the very many people for the lower price reduced the Canadian salmon trade with Belgium in one year to almost one-half, from $174,094 in 1932 to $95,681 in 1933. Japan now sells
twice as much canned salmon in Belgium as Canada does.
At the present time, Canada's chief exports to Belgium are wheat, apples, asbestos, ores of zinc, tinned fish, woodpulp, cheese, paper and cardboard; but a great variety of other products are on the market, and new products are constantly being introduced.
One of the main functions of the Canadian Trade Commissioner’s office in Brussels is to study the customs of the Belgian people and to report on the possibility of launching new products on the market. As a result of such studies, Canadian paper straws recently found their way into the tall glasses of soft drinks popular in the Belgian dance-halls, Canadian paper cartons have been used as containers for Belgian preserves and marmalades, Canadian elastic bands have become part of the office equipment of Belgian businessmen, and Canadian toy balloons have been delighting Belgian children.
Trade in Holland
ENTERING Holland, one finds an entirely different commercial policy to that of Belgium. There are no preferential tariffs, no exchange restrictions, but there is a quota on wheat. The Dutch mixing law requires that the flour milled in Holland shall have thirty-five per cent domestic wheat; and the bakers are allowed to use only five per cent of foreign flour. The Dutch Government has practically subsidized the domestic wheat growers,guaranteeing the farmers a price nearly three times the world price.
This had the effect of doubling the wheat production of Holland in one year; but Canadian wheat was not as hard hit as the softer wheats. However, while Canadian wheat is of the best quality, it is handicapped in competition with the lower-priced wheat of the Argentine. Trade Commissioner MacGillivray wrote recently in the Commercial Intelligence Journal:
“If there is to be a larger trade in Canadian wheat in Holland, which is one of the few semi-open markets remaining, prices must be brought more into line with those of South America. ”
The Dutch standard of living is one of the highest in Europe, though still far below our own in many respects. Their housing is good, and they eat well. Indeed, I know of no other place where such huge quantities of food are consumed per individual. There are many things that Holland must import. Having few forests of her own, she must import practically all her wood and wood products. There are many metals and raw materials which she must import for her industries; and since she has never tried to be industrially self-supporting, she impt rts many manufactured articles which are not produced locally.
I watched a ship unloading a cargo of Canadian goods at Rotterdam. In the lowest levels was the grain; next came a level packed with fifty-kilo bags of flour; above this rolled oats, then copper bars, copper wire, and wood pulp. In the dock sheds, wooden cases of wallboard were already piled high, and at one side, the
Maple Leaf showed prominently on boxes of canned pears. In another part of the shed, goods were piled up for the return joumev to Canada—cork from Spain, soap from France, wine and dyes from Germany.
This is just a glimpse of the wide variety of ' things Canada sends to Holland, which include such diverse products as surgeons’ rubber gloves, wooden spoons, bronze metal strips, cigarette lighters, celluloid combs, automobile batteries, pipe cleaners, honey, canned fruit, paper, fishmeal, brewers’ yeast, garden tools and rubber boots.
One of the first Dutch importers I visited was W. G. Van Oel, who handles fishermen’s rubber boots in Rotterdam. I asked him about the Canadian boots, which have been on the Dutch market for four years.
“They are a very good quality,” he said, “but it is a long time from Canada.”
He pointed to the rows of white rubber boots in his stockroom, and explained that he must always keep in stock four qualities, three heights and seven sizes; that is, eightyfour pairs of boots in order to have one complete set in stock. When he receives an order from the little shops in the fishing villages, which carry all a fisherman’s supplies—canvas sail, fishnets, oilskins, rubber boots, etc.—he must be able to fill it promptly. It is not always easy to replace his stocks from Canada as quickly as he would like.
“And the fishing trade has been bad,” he added. “The fishermen used to look for the best quality in their boots, but now price is the chief factor. The Japanese competition is very keen. They sell for a twenty per cent lower price.”
In spite of these disadvantages, Canadian rubber boots held their place remarkably well, only decreasing from 7,221 pairs in 1932 to 6,955 in 1933. But other Canadian rubber footwear, such as tennis shoes, have almost disappeared from the market under the price competition of Japan and the European countries.
Next I climbed many flights of stairs to the tiny offices of a food broker near the Exchange. The room looked more like a living room than an office, and I found the broker having tea. However, in Europe, the most business seems to be done in the smallest and least business-like looking rooms,and in this case the broker soon left me in no doubt as to his detailed knowledge of the prices of honey, dried apples and canned goods from all parts of the world. The Canadian product, it seemed, had an unpleasant habit of always being a little more expensive than its competitors. If Canadian buckwheat honey sold for 18.23 florins (guilders) per 100 kilograms, Russian sold for 16.25; if Canadian canned pears were | 5.09 fl. per case, California pears of a similar | grade were 4.80. Canadian pilchards were j in the market for 2.50 fi. per case, but Russian pilchards undercut at 1.80 fl. Cases of tall cans of Canadian pink salmon were selling at 7.73 fl., Japanese, at 6.30 fl.
“What can you do with prices like that?” he demanded pessimistically.
In spite of this pessimism, Dutch imports of Canadian honey increased 500 per cent in quantity and more than doubled in value in 1933. Canada is now the fourth supplier of this commodity to the Netherlands, being exceeded by Cuba, France and the United States. Since Canadian buckwheat evidently satisfies Dutch tastes, price will be the deciding factor in the growth of this trade.
THE PROSPECTS of Canadian wallboard were painted in somewhat cheerier tones by an official of the Fennia Trading Company whom I interviewed in the Hague.
“We took $28,000 worth of Canadian wall-board last year, and expect to handle more this,” he said. "Canadian wall-board is of the best quality, but it is not so well advertised as the United States product. There is a growing use of wall-board for ceilings to save the expense of plastering, and it is used for insulating sound in big apartment houses such as the one near the Peace Palace. But other Canadian wood products are not competitive.”
An importer of rubber gloves said to me:
“Canadian rubber gloves for surgeons’ use have to fight against the competition of the United States product which has been in the market longer. The doctors ask for those they have had before. Nevertheless, the quality of the Canadian gloves is good and the trade is growing slowly. Rubber gloves for housewives are sold in some of the big stores, but there isn’t much sale for them; the majority of Dutch women are not so concerned with the beauty of their hands.
“The greatest difficulty with the Canadian rubber glove trade is the long distance. It takes six weeks to get a consignment by freight boat, and that mitigates against orders. If they are sent parcel post, that adds twenty-five per cent to the cost.”
But besides the price competition and the long distance from the market, Canadian trade with Belgium and Holland has suffered from costly sins of omission and commission against the rules of good merchandising. I will cite here one example that came to my attention.
A Rotterdam agent had been in communication for two months with a Canadian firm regarding the possibility of opening up a market for their sulphate pulp among Dutch and Belgian paper manufacturers. On the strength of the correspondence, the agent made an eight-day trip in Belgium in a hired car to solicit orders, lie received favorable replies from a number of these prospects, so he cabled the Canadian firm to ask how large an order they were prepared to fill and what price they could quote. On a Saturday lie received their reply, stating that for the next five months they could fill orders at a specified price. He went ahead and confirmed trial orders for 250 tons. He was a happy man when he cabled the results of his efforts to Canada.
Two days later a desperate man burst into the offices of the Canadian Trade Commissioner, crying in excited German: “Furchtbar schlecht, furchtbar schlecht. Ich bin verloren!" (“Terrible, terrible, I am lost.”) It was the agent. In his hand he held a cablegram which said: “Too late. Cannot accept any part of your order.”
Compared with a serious situation such as this, short postage may seem a small offense, but its frequent occurrence leaves a very bad impression of Canadian business methods. There have been a good many complaints of Canadian exporters failing to comply with instructions as to invoicing and packing, failing to respond promptly to correspondence, or not giving adequate information, such as specific prices, when they do write, thus causing long and harmful delays.
Another thing that one hears said in Dutch and Belgian trade circles is that Canadian exporters lack initiative in marketing their products.
“Canadians don’t do anything,” an Antwerp importer exclaimed to me.
“Don’t do what?” I asked.
“Oh, they don’t go out after trade. The
exporters of other countries send representatives to study the market, establish stocks and branch offices, advertise, and exhibit at the fairs. Canadian exporters seem to think that their goods will sell themselves.” This Flemish gentleman was, of course, exaggerating. Canadian exporters do, to some extent, all these things. But he is much too near right. At this year’s Brussels Commercial Fair, France had 180 exhibits, Germany 137, Holland 28, the United Kingdom 25 and the United States 24. The only Canadian products displayed were Canadian vacuum cleaners shown by one of the Belgian exhibitors. The Union of South Africa has a permanent exhibit at their legation at the Hague, but Canada has no permanent exhibit in Holland. Canadian manufacturers could get together and have a Canadian exhibit at the semi-annual Utrecht Fair for a cost of $500, Trade Commissioner MacGillivray estimates; but so far they have not recognized that it would be advantageous to do so. Mr. MacGillivray also states, “Representatives would help tremendously”—but only seven actually came over from Canada in 1933.
WHAT IS the conclusion of the whole matter? Here is Canada’s best foreign market, after the United Kingdom and the United States, the key to Europe, an open market with the countries of the world in competition, a price market, in which Canadian products are too often “not competitive.” (And if they are not competitive in Holland with its comparatively high standard of living, are they likely to be more successful in the markets of the Orient with its infinitely lower standard of living?) Here are two of the chief trading nations of the world; here are two modern, developing countries; here is a market which Japan and Russia and the United States and Germany and France and Great Britain consider worth going after with every ounce of commercial strategy. Yet in Canada there is amazingly little realization of the importance of this market. Even those directly concerned with exporting are often ignorant of the real nature of this market and its needs.
We have already seen that in many established lines Canadian goods are being forced out of the market by lower-priced competition; that possible new markets are lost through the bad business methods of some exporters; that opportunities for expanding the market are neglected. And for every lost opportunity and every mistake another country steps in ahead.
The dream of vast, unfathomed markets for Canadian goods in the Orient may materialize some day, but meanwhile Canadian exporters would be well advised to hang on to that nice little hunk of trade w : have with the two tiny countries in the “Cockpit of Europe,” Belgium and the Netherlands.z
The Place of the Holland-Belgium Market in Canada’s World Export Trade
United Kingdom.. United States
Other Countries: Netherlands Belgium
Other European Countries
St. Pierre and Miquelon Newfoundland
Other North America (except
U S )..
British India Other Asia
Oceania South America
12.700.000 8.1 (»,000 4.100,000
2.400.000 2 300,000
Total Canadian Exports
(These figures, given in round numbers, are for the fiscal year, ending M reh 31, 1933.)