Canada Greets Her King

There's Something In a Name

Part 3 : New Brunswick

MARY AGNES PEASE May 15 1939
Canada Greets Her King

There's Something In a Name

Part 3 : New Brunswick

MARY AGNES PEASE May 15 1939

There's Something In a Name

Part 3 : New Brunswick

MARY AGNES PEASE

NEW BRUNSWICK.” said a historian recently, “has the most unusual history of any part of Canada, because it was established as a separate colony at the close of the American War of Independence (1775-83) to provide sanctuary for the British Loyalists who trekked north after the war and settled in the Maritime Provinces and in Upper Canada.”

It seems rathei surprising that this new colony was not named “Loyalist” rather than New Brunswick, but evidently affection for and devotion to the Crown were responsible for the choice of one of the titles of the reigning sovereign. King George III, that of the Duke of Brunswick. The name recalls the old relationship of the British Royal Family with this German name. Brunswick was a free state {Freistaat Braunschiveip,) in Northwestern Germany. which state was surrounded mainly by the provinces of Saxony and Hanover. The House of Brunswick was founded in the twelfth century by Henry the Lion, the great Duke of Saxony. Later a branch of the family secured control of Hanover, one of the members of which married a granddaughter of King James I of England. Thus it happened that a BrunswickLuneberg-Hanoverian became George I of England when, after the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the line of the Stuarts lapsed.

The title of Brunswick followed the Royal Family until 1917. at which time (during the Great War) King George V abandoned all German titles for himself and his House, decreeing that those princes of his family who bore German titles should relinquish them, and that the Royal House of Great Britain and Ireland would be known no longer as the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, hut as the House of Windsor.

The territory which bears the name of New Brunswick, was. in its youth, one of the counties of Nova Scotia, and bore the name of Cumberland. History tells us that the British Government at that time preferred small colonies, as likely to be less

restive and more dependent on the Mother Country. Be that as it may, there is no doubt that the real reason for the separation of this former county of Nova Scotia into an individual colony was to give the Loyalist settlers a definite place and government of their own. In consequence, the substratum of population in New Brunswick and in other parts of the Maritimes is Loyalist in origin.

It seems strange that there are no names in the province which directly recall the migration of these exiles of the American Revolution, one of the most moving episodes in modem history . . . “There is no loyalty so deep as that which proves itself in suffering, no love so constant as that which spends itself in pain.” The devotion of the Loyalists was recognized by the British Government, which awarded land and financial compensation to these patriots for their losses, and authorized each Loyalist and his descendants to hear after their names the initials “U.E.” (United Empire), from which has come the well-known term. United Empire Loyalists.

Confederation, which one would naturally suppose to be a very important event in the history of the province, seems to have no record in the place names. Perhaps the reason for this may be found in the following note on Confederation which appears in the Encyclopaedia Britannica: “In 1867 New Brunswick entered without reluctance, hut without enthusiasm, into the Canadian Confederation.”

The parish names in the province show the loyalist devotion to Great Britain, for they are those of Dorchester. Wellington. Nelson. Chatham, Other names, doubtless given because of "deep affection and recollection.“areduplicates of English places, such as Greenwich. Hampton, etc. Many Indian names survive in the province. most of them applied to rivers, lakes and harbors, which in the old days formed the aboriginal highways on which the French and Indians travelled together.