GENERAL ARTICLES

Calendar of the War

A concise chronological record of the breakdown of the peace and the course of the war

EDGAR McINNIS January 1 1941
GENERAL ARTICLES

Calendar of the War

A concise chronological record of the breakdown of the peace and the course of the war

EDGAR McINNIS January 1 1941

Calendar of the War

A concise chronological record of the breakdown of the peace and the course of the war

EDGAR McINNIS

1933

Jan. 30—Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.

Oct. 14—Germany announces withdrawal from Disarmament Conference and League of Nations.

1934

Jan. 26—Ten-year nonaggression pact between Germany and Poland.

July 25—Failure of attempted Nazi coup in Vienna; murder of Dollfuss.

Sept. 18—Russia admitted to League of Nations.

Dec. 5—Frontier incident at Wal Wal inaugurates crisis between Italy and Ethiopia.

1935

Jan. 13—Plebiscite results in return of Saar territory to Germany.

Feb. 10—Italy mobilizes against Ethiopia.

Mar. 16—Germany introduces conscription in defiance of Treaty of Versailles.

May 2—Treaty of alliance between France and Russia.

21—Hitler, in speech to Reichstag, promises to respect all treaties voluntarily signed, including Locarno.

June 18—Anglo-German naval treaty sanctions German naval rearmament.

Oct. 2—Italy invades Ethiopia.

11—League of Nations votes economic sanctions against Italy, to take effect November 18.

1936

Mar. 7—German military occupation of the Rhineland in defiance of treaties of Versailles and Locarno.

May 9—Formal annexation of Ethiopia by Italy.

July 11—Austro-German agreement containing German promise to respect Austrian independence.

15—League sanctions against Italy lifted.

17—Outbreak of Spanish Civil War.

Oct. 25—German-Italian agreement on diplomatic cooperation creates Berlin-Rome Axis.

Nov. 18—Germany and Italy recognize Franco Government.

20—Britain pledges aid to France and Belgium in case of attack.

25—Germany and Japan sign anti-Comintern pact.

1937

Jan. 2—Anglo-Italian agreement to maintain status quo in Mediterranean.

Feb. 16—Britain embarks on five-year program of rearmament.

July 7—Outbreak of war between China and Japan.

Nov. 6—Italy joins anti-Comintern pact.

Dec. 11—Italy withdraws from League of Nations.

1938

Feb. 4—Hitler purge of high civil and military officials-

12—Hitler forces concessions from Chancellor Schuschnigg of Austria in interview at Berchtesgaden.

20—Anthony Eden resigns as British Foreign Minister; succeeded by Lord Halifax.

Mar. 11—Nazi ultimatum forces resignation of Schuschnigg-

12— German invasion and annexation of Austria. April 16—Anglo-Italian agreement on mutual interests in

Africa and Near East.

May 21—Fear of German attack brings Czech mobilization crisis.

Aug. 2—Lord Runciman goes to Czecho-Slovakia on mission of conciliation.

Sept. 30—Munich agreement provides for partition ol Czecho-Slovakia.

1939

Mar. 15—Germans occupy Prague.

23—German annexation of Memel.

28— Madrid surrenders to F ranco.

31—Britain and France pledge aid to Poland in case of attack.

April 7—Italy invades Albania.

13— Britain and France pledge aid to Roumania and

Greece in case of attack.

27—Britain introduces conscription.

29— Hitler denounces nonaggression treaty with

Poland and Anglo-German naval treaty.

May 22—Germany and Italy sign military alliance.

Aug. 15—Germany demands Danzig and Polish Corridor.

18—Britain warns Germany that she will fulfill her pledge to Poland.

German troops occupy Slovakia.

23—Nonaggression pact between Germany and Russia officially concluded.

Sept. 1—Germany invades Poland.

Danzig declared incorporated in Reich.

FYance orders general mobilization.

2— Britain and France reply to Italian suggestion

for conference by stating that Germany must first withdraw from Poland.

3— Britain and France declare war on Germany. Chamberlain forms War Cabinet. Churchill

enters ministry as First Lord of the Admiralty. Eden as Secretary for the Dominions.

Liner Athenia sunk by German submarine.

5—German troops within thirty miles of Warsaw. French troops begin local advance on Western Front.

Sept. 5—Canada announces constitution of Canadian Active Service Force.

South African Parliament rejects proposal of neutrality; Prime Minister Hertzog resigns, succeeded by Smuts.

President Roosevelt proclaims Neutrality Law.

6— First British troops land in France.

7— Polish garrison in Westerplatte fortress in

Danzig harbor surrenders.

Germans take Pultusk. approach Lodz.

10— Canada formally declares war on Germany.

11— Germans cross San River.

14—Gdynia surrenders.

16— German ultimatum demanding surrender of

Warsaw by following day.

17— Russian troops invade eastern Poland.

Polish Government takes refuge in Roumania.

18— British aircraft carrier Courageous sunk.

19— Hitler enters Danzig, declares that Germany

wants peace.

Canada announces decision to send expeditionary force of two divisions.

27—Warsaw surrenders.

First British war budget.

29—German-Soviet treaty on partition of Poland. Russian treaty securing military bases from Esthonia.

Oct. 3—French forces withdraw to Maginot Line.

5— Soviet-Latvian treaty.

6— Hitler, in speech to Reichstag, suggests peace on

basis of conquests.

7— Germany begins evacuation of persons of

German race from Baltic States.

9—Opening of negotiations between Russia and Finland.

American steamer City of Flint seized by German raider Deutschland.

10—Soviet-Lithuanian treaty.

14—Battleship Royal Oak torpedoed in Scapa Flow by German submarine.

17—German planes raid Scapa Flow, damage training ship Iron Duke.

19—Turkey signs fifteen-year alliance with Britain and France.

31—Mussolini makes sweeping changes in Italian ministry.

Nov. 3—Norwegian authorities order release of City of Flint after Germans take her into port of Haugesund

4—United States adopts new neutrality law substituting cash-and-carry for former prohibition of arms export.

Nov. 6—Conference on Empire Air Training scheme opens at Ottawa.

7— Sovereigns of Belgium and the Netherlands offer

to mediate between belligerents.

8— Hitler narrowly escapes bomb explosion in

Munich.

12— Allied replies to offer of mediation ask for

German proposals assuring peace.

13— Finland and Russia break off negotiations.

14— Germany says Allies have rejected mediation,

Germany need not reply.

17— Anglo-French agreement on economic co-opera-

tion for war purposes.

18— Dutch liner Simon Bolivar sunk by German mine

with loss of eighty-six lives.

26—Announcement that armed British merchant cruiser Rawalpindi sunk Nov. 23 in battle with Deutschland.

Russia accuses Finns of firing on Soviet frontier troops.

28—Russia denounces nonaggression pact with Finland.

30— Russia invades Finland.

Dec. 1—British navicert system for neutral shipping in operation.

2—Finland appeals to League of Nations.

4— Russia denies that she is at war with Finland

and refuses to attend League session. Enforcement of Allied ban on German exports in reprisal for indiscriminate laying of mines. 10—Announcement that British troops are in the Maginot Line.

12—German jxxrket battleship Graf Spee defeated by British cruisers Exeter, Ajax and Achilles in Battle of the Plate; takes refuge in Montevideo.

14—Russia expelled from League of Nations.

17— Graf Spee scuttled off Montevideo.

P'irst contingent of Canadian troops lands in England.

Agreement signed at Ottawa between Britain and Dominions providing for Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

18— Sharp raid by British fliers on German base at

Heligoland.

24—Pope’s appeal outlining five bases for a just peace.

26—First Australian troops (a detachment of airmen) arrive in England.

31— Finns claim destruction of Russian division near

Suomussalmi.

1940

Jan. 4—Germany sets up General Council for War

Economy under Goering.

5— Leslie Hore-Belisha resigns as British War

Minister; succeeded by Oliver Stanley.

8—Finns report destruction of Russian 44th Division east of Lake Kianta.

Britain introduces rationing for certain commodities.

10—German planes attack fourteen British ships.

Jan. 13—Conclusion of trade treaty between P'rance and Spain.

14—Reported plans for German invasion bring defense preparations in Netherlands.

20— Speech by Churchill urging neutrals to co-oper-

ate with Britain.

21— British naval forces in Pacific take twenty-one

German sailors off Japanese ship Asama Maru. 24—Chamberlain renews British pledge of support to Belgium.

26—Expiration of trade treaty between United States and Japan clears way for possible American trade embargo.

Feb. 1 —Russian forces launch major assault on P'innish Mannerheim Line.

4— Council of Balkan Entente, meeting in Belgrade.

decides against strengthening the pact by military alliance. Jugoslav Foreign Minister asserts that Balkans are not threatened from any side.

5— Allied Supreme Council decides to send aid to

Finland.

6— Britain releases nine German sailors taken from

Asama Maru.

12—First contingent of Australian and New Zealand troops lands at Suez.

P'innish peace overtures through Sweden.

Trade treaty between Russia and Germany.

16—Destroyer Cossack rescues 299 British seamen from German prison ship Altmark in Norwegian waters.

Sweden refuses Finnish request for military aid. Wartime trade agreement between Britain and France.

20—Russians claim capture of Koivisto.

22— Russia asks Britain to transmit peace proposals

to P'inland. Britain later refuses on grounds that terms are too severe.

24— Conclusion of trade agreements between Italy

and Germany.

25— Foreign Ministers of Norway, Sweden and

Denmark, meeting in Copenhagen, affirm policy of continued neutrality.

First squadron of Royal Canadian Air Porce arrives in England.

Mar. 3—British liner Domata bombed and set afire in Channel with loss of more than 100 lives. Russians reach outskirts of Viipuri.

Sweden refuses to allow passage of Allied troops to Finland.

5—Britain announces war loan issue of 300 million pounds.

Announcement that Italian ships carrying German coal have been stopped by British warships.

7— Peace negotiations between Russia and P'inland

open in Moscow.

9—England and P'rance agree on creation of joint Industrial Council.

Britain agrees to release Italian ships in return for Italian promise not to import German coal by sea.

Mar. 9—Staff talks between Turkish and Allied military authorities.

12—Peace concluded between Russia and Finland. 16—First bombing of British soil during German air raid on Scapa Flow.

18— Hitler meets Mussolini at Brenner Pass.

Trade treaty between Britain and Spain.

19— Heaviest air raid of war to this point launched

by R.A.F. against German base of Hornum on the island of Sylt.

20— Russians block proposed Scandinavian alliance

by forbidding Finland to join.

21— Paul Reynaud succeeds Edouard Daladier as

P'rench Prime Minister.

26---Announcement that British troops have taken over a further sector of the Maginot Line. Canadian general election returns Mackenzie King Government to power.

Britain and Italy resume trade negotiations.

28— Supreme War Council announces agreement

between Britain and France that neither will conclude separate peace.

29— Prime Minister Molotov, in speech to Supreme

Council of Soviet Union, says Russia has no intention of entering war.

Germans issue White Book purporting to show that American diplomats encouraged Allies to bring about war.

April 2—German air attack on Scapa P'low.

3—British air attack on Wilhelmshaven and German warships near by.

Chamberlain ministry reorganized; Churchill gets increased influence over direction of fighting services.

5—Allied notes to Sweden and Norway forecast increased strictness of blockade.

8— Allies announce laying of minefields at three

points off Norwegian coast.

German troopship Rio de Janeiro torpedoed off Lillesand. British destroyer Glowworm sunk off Norway in clash with German fleet.

9— German forces invade Norway and Denmark.

Norwegians sink Bluecher and Karlsruhe. British destroyer Gurkha sunk by bombs; battleship Rodney hit by heavy bomb but not damaged. Renown scores hits on Scharnhorst in running fight during snowstorm.

10— First battle of Narvik, British destroyer flotilla,

against superior force, sinks supply ships in harbor; one German destroyer sunk, three others damaged.

Norwegian Government formally decides on resistance. German airmen attempt to bomb King Haakon. German troops reach Hamar. Belgium cancels army leaves.

11— Germans claim mastery of all forts in Oslo Fjord.

R.A.F. raids air base at Stavanger.

12— British announce laying of minefields in Skag-

gerak and Kattegat.

Netherlands defense preparations.

13— Second battle ôf Narvik, destruction of flotilla of

seven German destroyers.

April 1.3—British announce extension of minefields along whole of Germany’s Baltic coast.

14— First landing of advance Allied

force at Namsos. Germans take Skarnes, claim to have reached Swedish border.

15— Germans occupy Kongsvinger.

16— Announcement that British

troops have occupied Faroe Islands.

German military mission arrives in Rome.

17— Allied forces land at Andalsnes,

Norway.

19—Britain informs Russia of readiness to renew trade discussions.

21—German attack at Stenkjer threatens British advance. 23—Second British war budget.

Germans claim advance beyond Lillehammer.

26— Allied retreat from Roeros.

27— Von Ribbentrop. to audience of

diplomats and reporters, presents alleged documents intended to prove Allied plans to invade Norway.

30—Germans take Dombaas, link main advance with forces at Trondheim.

Britain orders merchant ships from Mediterranean.

May 2—Allies withdraw from southern Norway.

3— Strong allied fleet arrives at

Alexandria.

4— Arrests of Fifth Column suspects

by Netherlands Government.

7— Chamberlain in Commons de-

fends conduct on Norway.

8— Chamberlain victory in Com-

mons by unusually small majority of eighty-one; many Conservatives abstain, or vote with opposition.

9 —Announcement that British troops have occupied Iceland. Labor refuses to join Chamberlain ministry.

10—German troops invade Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg.

Chamberlain resigns; Churchill becomes Prime Minister.

11 —Germans capture Maastricht and Eben Emael.

Allied forces occupy Netherlands West Indies.

Allied air forces bomb Rhineland. Anti-British demonstrations in Rome.

12— Germans overrun Luxemburg.

claim capture of citadel of Liège and forcing of Albert Canal.

13— Germans cross Moerdijk Bridge.

outflanking main Dutch defenses. Netherlands Government flees to England.

14— Bombing and partial destruction

of Rotterdam in spite of surrender.

Resistance ends in all Holland north of Maas. Germans reach Meuse.

15— Germans pierce Meuse line,

claim Louvain.

16— Germans drive gap in Allied

defenses between Namur and .Sedan.

17— Last of Dutch resistance ends

with surrender of Zeeland. Brussels falls. Belgian Government moves to Ostend. Allied air raids on Bremen and Hamburg.

18— Germans take Antwerp, push

west through Sedan gap. Reynaud Cabinet reorganized; Pétain appointed vicepremier.

May 19—Wevgand replaces Gamelin as Allied Commander-in-Chief. Germans claim crossing of Scheldt, capture of St. Quentin and Le Cateau.

20— Germans reach Peronne. Canada announces raising of

Third Division.

21— Germans break through on

Somme, capture Arras and Amiens, reach Channel at Abbeville.

Britain adopts national conscription of property and man power.

22— British counterattack at Arras.

23— Germans reach Boulogne. British Government arrests Fifth

Column suspects, including Sir Oswald Mosley.

24— Germans break Scheldt defense

line.

25— Germans launch heavy drive

against Belgian left, take Ghent and Courtrai, reach Calais.

Fifteen French generals removed from commands.

26— Sir John Dill replaces Sir

Edmund Ironside as Chief of Imperial General Staff.

27— Allies driven back from Lys;

Germans widen Somme gap. Canada announces raising of infantry units for Fourth Division.

Sir Stafford Cripps appointed special trade envoy to Moscow.

28— King Leopold surrenders Belgian

army. Belgian Cabinet repudiates action.

Allies capture Narvik.

29— Retreat of Allied army on

Dunkirk. Germans take Ypres, Ostend.

31—Italy breaks off negotiations with Britain on contraband control.

June 1—German air raids on Marseille and region of Lyon.

Sir Samuel Hoare, arriving in Madrid as special envoy, greeted by anti-British demonstrations and demands for Gibraltar.

2— Eden says four fifths of Allied

force evacuated from Dunkirk.

3— German air raids on Paris.

4— Evacuation of Dunkirk com-

pleted.

Sir Stafford Cripps appointed Ambassador to Russia.

5— Battle of France begins with

German attacks on Somme and Aisne.

German air raids on British coast.

Reynaud reconstructs ministry; General de Gaulle Undersecretary for Defense.

6— Germans cross .Somme, advance

seventeen miles to Bresle River.

7— Allies withdraw along whole

front.

Italy orders merchant ships to home or neutral ports.

8— Germans break Weygand line

south of Bresle; cross Aisne.

9— Germans reach Rouen, launch

new attack on Argonne front.

10—Italy declares war on Allies. President Roosevelt denounces action as “stab in the back.” Germans cross Seine, threaten Rheims.

French Government leaves Paris for Tours.

Allies withdraw from Narvik, end Norwegian campaign.

Aircraft carrier Glorious lost during operations.

June 10—Canadian Defense Minister.

Hon. Norman Rogers, killed in air crash.

11— P'rench withdraw to Marne. Italian air raids on Malta. Bristol raids on Italian bases

in Libya and East Africa.

12— Germans cross Marne and lower

Seine.

Egypt breaks off diplomatic relations with Italy. Turkey severs commercial relations. Spain declares nonbelligerency.

13— Reynaud appeals to Roosevelt

for immediate aid.

German attacking forces estimated at 100 divisions. Advance reaches Châlons-surMarne.

Hitler, in interview, denies any designs on New World.

14— Germans enter Paris, take Le

Havre, attack Maginot Line. Spanish forces occupy international zone at Tangier.

French Government moves to Bordeaux.

15— Germans penetrate Maginot

Line at Neuf Brisach.

Russia secures right of military occupation from Lithuania. Roosevelt promises Reynaud all possible supplies but no military commitments.

16— Partial French withdrawal from

Maginot Line. Germans reach Saone.

Reynaud resigns; succeeded by Pétain.

Britain offers France union of two empires.

Russian military occupation of Latvia and Esthonia.

17— France asks Germany for armis-

tice.

Germans take Metz and Dijon, reach Orleans and Swiss border.

U.S. Congress passes joint resolution forbidding transfer of colonies in Americas from one European power to another. I.ancastria sunk with loss of more than 2.000 while evacuating troops from St. Nazaire.

18— Hitler and Mussolini meet at

Munich to consider French armistice request.

Germans split French forces, advance into Normandy and Brittany.

Announcement that Canadian troops are in Iceland.

19— Germans take Nancy and Cher-

bourg, cross Loire.

20— France asks Italy for armistice. Germans take Lyon and Brest,

make second breach in Maginot Line.

First contingent of Australian and New Zealand troops in Britain.

Canadian Government given power to mobilize man power and industrial resources.

21— Hitler meets French delegates at

Compiègne.

Carol of Roumania assumes dictatorial powers.

Italy begins offensive against France.

Fourth contingent of Canadian troops lands in Britain.

22— Armistice concluded between

France and Germany. Two thirds of France to be occupied, including whole Atlantic coast. French troops to be demobilized, fleet to disarm under Axis supervision. Fighting not to end until armistice concluded with Italy.

June 24—Armistice concluded between France and Italy. Fighting ends next morning at 1.35 a.m.

Canadian war budget.

25— British raids on French coast by

naval and military units aided by R.A.F.

26— Russian ultimatum to Rou-

mania demanding cession of Bessarabia.

27— Roumania cedes Bessarabia and

northern Bukovina to Russia.

28— Britain announces evacuation of

Channel Islands.

Loss of Canadian destroyer Fraser announced.

Britain recognizes General de Gaulle as leader of Free French forces.

Italian Air Marshal Balbo killed in air battle over Libya.

July 1—Roumania renounces British guarantee.

French Government moves to Vichy.

2— British damage Scharnhorst in

air raid on Kiel.

Canada speeds up Air Training Plan.

3— British naval forces attack and

sink French warships at Oran.

4— Italians capture Kassala and

Galabat in the Sudan.

5— France decides to break off

diplomatic relations with Britain.

First air attack on Gibraltar. Sweden agrees to allow transit of German war materials and unarmed troops to Norway.

6— British air attack on French

warship Dunkerque, crippled in battle of Oran.

8— British naval forces put French

battleship Richelieu out of action at Dakar.

9— Announcement that French war-

ships at Alexandria have been peaceably demilitarized.

10—French National Assembly votes to abolish constitution.

13—British steamers King John and Davisian sunk by armed German raider in vicinity of West Indies.

15— British withdraw from frontier

post of Moyale on Kenya border.

16— Italians claim occupation of

Dolo salient on Kenya frontier.

17— Britain agrees to close Burma

Road for period of three months.

19—Hitler, in speech to Reichstag, demands that Britain stop fighting.

British cruiser Sydney sinks Italian fast cruiser Bartolomeo Col leoni.

Sir Alan Brooke appointed Commander-in-Chief of British Home Forces.

21—Baltic States vote for incorporation in Soviet Union.

23—Third British war budget.

Britain recognizes provisional Czech Government formed in London.

29— Pan - American conference

adopts Act of Havana, providing machinery for forestalling transfer of colonies in Western Hemisphere.

31—The British merchant cruiser A/ccn/enöcrippled in clash with German raider in South Atlantic.

Britain stiffens up blockade regulations on contraband. Aug. 2—First party of British airmen begins training in Canada under Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

4—Italians launch invasion of British Somaliland.

Aug. 5—Italians capture Zeila.

7— Britain concludes agreement

with General de Gaulle on relations with Free French forces.

8— Beginning of mass daylight air

raids on Britain.

France sets up court at Riom to try charges of war guilt.

11—Italian accusations of Greek responsibility for Albanian frontier incidents.

13— Growing Italian pressure on

Greece to renounce British guarantee.

14— British launch first of series of

air raids on northern Italy. German parachutes found in three districts in Britain, but no parachutists discovered.

15— Germans use over 1,000 planes

in raids on Britain, lose 182. Greek cruiser Helle sunk by submarine believed to be Italian.

16— Italian bombing of Greek ships

reported.

Aug. 16—Hungary and Roumania open negotiations on Transylvania.

17— British navy shells Libyan base

of Bardia, forces Italian withdrawal from Fort Capuzzo.

18— Ogdensburg agreement between

Canada and United States provides for creation of Joint Defense Board.

Germans lose 144 planes in raids on Britain.

British troops withdrawn from North China.

19— Britain announces evacuation

of Somaliland.

Roumania opens negotiations with Bulgaria for transfer of southern Dobruja.

20— Churchill announces readiness

to cede bases to U.S.

21— Agreement between Roumania

and Bulgaria on cession of southern Dobruja.

22— German long-range guns on

French coast shell convoy in Channel and English coast.

Aug. 22—First air raid on metropolitan London.

23— British navy bombards Bardia

and Italian seaplane base at Bomba.

24— Breakdown of negotiations be-

tween Roumania and Hungary over Transylvania.

25— First British air raid on Berlin.

26— German planes drop bombs on

four towns in Eire. Canadian-American Joint Defense Board holds first meeting in Ottawa.

27— R.A.F. conducts fifth raid on

Italy within fortnight. Italians mass troops on Greek frontier.

29— French colonies of Chad and

Cameroons pronounce in favor of De Gaulle.

30— Axis issues Vienna award giving

half Transylvania to Hungary.

Sept. 1—Britain announces torpedoing of ship carrying children to Canada; all saved.

French colony of Gabon joins De Gaulle.

3— Britain and United States an-

nounce deal which gives Britain fifty over-age destroyers, United States eight bases from Newfoundland to British Guiana on 99-year lease. Oceania joins De Gaulle.

4— Hitler speech promising invasion

of Britain and retaliation for bombing of German cities, asserting readiness for long war.

General Antonescu becomes premier of Roumania with plenary powers.

5— Reinforcements to forces in

Mediterranean announced by Churchill.

6— Abdication of King Carol of

Roumania; General Antonescu declares for full cooperation with Axis.

7~-Germans launch all-out air attacks on London; lose 103 planes.

Announcement of agreement between Roumania and Bulgaria on cession of southern Dobruja.

8—Goering announces that he has taken personal direction of air attack on England.

10— Four French warships leave

Toulon for West Africa.

11— Delayed action bomb explodes

at Buckingham Palace.

13— Air attack on Buckingham

Palace; hits on Downing Street and House of Lords.

14— Italians start drive on Egypt,

occupy Solium.

Canada calls up first class for 30-day military training.

15— Germans lose 185 planes in

severe attack on London. Announcement that German occupation to cost France twenty million marks a day. 17—Storm scatters German ship concentrations in invasion ports.

Italians take Sidi Barraní.

City of Benares, carrying children and refugees, sunk with loss of 248.

21— Heavy R.A.F. raids on ports

from Antwerp to Boulogne.

22— France agrees to allow Japanese

bases and troops in IndoChina.

23— Forces of De Gaulle, supported

by British warships, clash with shore forces at Dakar. Japanese forces clash with French troops at Dongdang in Indo-China.

24— French aircraft take part in raid

on Gibraltar in reprisal for attack on Dakar; repeat next clay.

Sept. 25—Finland agrees to allow passage of German troops.

Five-hour air raid on Berlin.

27—Announcement of alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan.

Germans lose 133 planes in raids on Britain.

Oct. 2—British Government decides to suspend scheme for evacuation of children.

3— Chamberlain resigns office;

Churchill reorganizes War Cabinet to include Bevin and Wood.

4— Meeting between Hitler and

Mussolini at Brenner Pass.

7— Announcement that German

troops have begun occupation of Roumania.

8— Most widespread night air at-

tack on Britain to date. Canada places embargo on shipments of copper to Japan. 10—De Gaulle lands in Cameroons.

12— British cruiser Ajax sinks two

Italian destroyers, cripples a third which is sunk by cruiser York.

13— British submarines sink four

Italian supply ships, shell Savona.

16— British Air Ministry reports

raids on forty objectives in enemy territory.

17— London experiences longest

night attack since raids began. Burma Road opened at midnight.

18— New attacks in Italian press

against Greece.

Britain announces civilian casualties from air raids in September as 6.954 killed, 10,615 seriously injured.

19— Germany signs trade treaty with

Jugoslavia. Jugoslav premier says collaboration is not only commercial but political. Italian planes raid Bahrein Islands.

20— R.A.F. conducts most violent

attack yet made on French Channel coast.

21— Italian attack on Red Sea con-

voy driven off with loss of one Italian destroyer.

22— Canadian destroyer Margaree

lost in collision.

23— Hitler meets Franco at Spanish

border.

France says she will neither declare war on Britain nor surrender fleet to Axis.

24— Hitler meets Pétain in occupied

France.

Canada turns out first graduates of Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

25— Announcement by Germany

that Italian fliers have taken part in previous day’s raids on Britain.

26— Liner Empress of Britain sunk as

result of air attack.

Italians accuse Greece of responsibility for armed clash on Albanian frontier.

French Cabinet approves agreement between Pétain and Hitler for closer collaboration.

27— De Gaulle sets up Council of

Defense for Free French territories.

Heavy air raid on Liverpool.

28— Italians present three-hour ulti-

matum to Greece, launch invasion before time limit expires.

Hitler meets Mussolini at Florence.

First R.A.F. raid on Skoda works at Pilsen.

29— Admiralty announces loss of

forty-live ships totalling 198,030 tons, for week ending October 21.

Oct. 30—Canada announces first merchant ship casualty of war in torpedoing of ¿7. Malo.

British lay minefields off Greek coast, land naval detachments on Crete.

31—Italian drive on Janina reaches Kalamas River.

Nov. 1—First British air raid on Naples.

President Inonu of Turkey asserts continued loyalty to British alliance, renewed friendly relations with Russia.

2— Greeks launch attack toward

Koritza.

3— British officially»announce land-

ing of troops in Crete.

4— Spain takes full control in

Tangier by abolishing international commission.

Britain claims twenty-nine Italian submarines sunk since war began.

Announcement of loss of British armed merchant cruisers Laurentie and Patroclus.

5— German pocket battleship at-

tacks British convoy in north Atlantic; heroism of armed merchant cruiser Jervis Bay saves thirty-four out of thirtyeight ships.

7— British capture Gallabat in

eastern Sudan.

8— British to share 50-50 with

United States in American arms production.

British bomb Munich while Hitler celebrating anniversary of beer-hall putsch.

Presence of German mines in Tasman Strait between Australia and New Zealand revealed.

9— New Greek advances around

Koritza.

10— Forces of De Gaulle capture

Libreville in Equatorial Africa. General Ubaldo Soddu takes charge of Italian campaign against Greece.

11— Thirteen Italian planes shot

down in raids over England. Combined air and naval action against Italian fleet in harbor of Taranto cripples three battleships, two cruisers, two auxiliaries.

12— Molotov arrives in Berlin for

three-day conference with Hitler.

Britain announces 6,334 civilians killed and 8,695 injured in air raids in October.

13— R.A.F. attacks Berlin during

Molotov visit.

14— Savage air attack on Coventry

causes nearly 2,000 casualties. Germans call it reprisal for bombing of Munich.

France protests expulsions of Lorraine French-speaking inhabitants by Germany.

15— Conference of Field-Marshals

Keitel and Badoglio at Innsbruck.

17— King Boris of Bulgaria confers

with Hitler in Berlin.

18— Mussolini makes first speech

since Italy entered war; promises victory over Greece, calls for destruction ot Britain.

19— Nine-hour air raid on Birming-

ham.

20— Hungary formally adheres to

Tri-Partite pact of Germany, Italy and Japan.

United States announces release of “flying fortresses” and Sperry bombsight to Britain.

22— Greeks capture Koritza.

Turks declare martial law in

European Turkey.

Russia denies having approved Hungary’s adherence to Axis.

23— Roumania adheres to Tri-Par-

tite pact.

Lord Ix)thian, returning to America, warns of prospective

exhaustion of Britain's cash resources.

Nov. 24—Announcement of presence of British troops on Greek mainland.

Slovakia adheres to Tri-Partite pact.

25—Announcement that Bulgaria will not sign with Axis; attributed to Russian influence.

27— British and Italian Mediter-

ranean fleets in skirmish at extreme range; Britain claims damage to six Italian ships, admits hit on one cruiser. Massacre of former political opponents by Roumanian Iron Guard.

Announcement of sinking of two ships by German raider in Indian Ocean.

28— Heavy German air raid on

Liverpool.

29— U.S. transfers to Canada 144

planes ordered by Sweden.

30— Formal Japanese recognition of

puppet Chinese government of Wang Ching-Wei.

Greeks announce capture of Pogradec.

Germans proclaim annexation of Lorraine.

Dec. 2—Canada revises tariff regulations to cut down luxury imports and to favor British goods. Financial agreement between Britain and Spain.

3— Birmingham chief target for

German air raids.

4— Commercial treaty between Bri-

tain and Turkey.

Germany and Roumania sign ten-year trade pact giving Germany practical control of Roumanian resources.

. 5—United States releases coastal

defense guns to Canada.

6— Greeks occupy Santa Quaranti

(Port Edda).

Marshal Badoglio resigns as Chief of Italian General Staff.

7— Resignation of General de Becchi,

Italian commander in Dodecanese.

8— Resignation of Admiral Cavag-

nari, Chief of Italian Naval Staff and Undersecretary for the Navy.

Bulletproof Tires

WITH the increased emphasis on mobile armored equipment in military affairs, the pneumatic tires on which it travels have remained the “heel of Achilles.” Now a new type of pneumatic tire has been developed which overcomes this weakness. Employing both a special rubber and a unique construction, the new tires can be pierced apparently at will by bullets without leaking enough air to cause trouble. The rubber closes over bullet holes so quickly and completely that 29 bullets fired into a tire inflated to 60 pounds pressure showed no tendency to deflate the tire.—The Rotarian.