The forests of Brazil produce numerous medicines, among the better known being quassia, castor oil, senna pods, digitalis, verbena, jalap, nux vomica and jaborandi, the last of which is frequently used as a hair tonic. Quinine also had its origin in this part of the world. It is a product of cinchona bark, and even that name contains a romance associated with its curative properties. In 1638 the Countess of Chinchón, wife of the viceroy of Peru, was taken seriously ill with fever. A priest offered to procure for her a remedy of which he had heard from the local Indians. She was cured by it. and henceforth her name was given to it.
Plimsoll marks on a ship consist of a disc with a horizontal line through its centre, indicating the summer load line, and a series of other horizontal lines indicating the load lines for various waters and seasons. The abbreviations used to mark these lines are as follows:
FW —Fresh water.
IS —Indian Ocean in summer.
WAA—North Atlantic in winter.
S —Summer in waters other
than Indian Ocean.
W —Winter in waters other than
T —Tropical waters.
TF —Tropical fresh waters.
The same cloud shapes are found in all parts of the world. Men have studied these shapes through long ages, but it was not till 1803 that Luke Howard, an English chemist, tried to classify them. Flere is a list of the chief cloud shapes recognized by j scientists.
Cirrus About 30,000 feet
Cirro-stratus “ 25,000 “
Cirro-cumulus “ 20,000 “
I Alto-stratus “ 15,000 “
Alto-cumulus “ 10,(XX) “
Cumulus 5,000 to 10,000 “
Stratus 2,000 “
Nimbo-stratus 4,000 “
Cumulo-nimbus top, 12,000 “ base, 6,000 “
Mares' tails. Sheet of mist. Mackerel sky. Blue grey veil. Bands. Woolpack clouds; towers. Like high fog. Rain clouds. Thunder clouds.
The papaya is the most rapid-growing but shortest-lived tree in the world. It exhausts itself after five years continuous cropping. The milky juice of the papaya fruit is papain, a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. It also is used in the preparation of chewing gum, and to make food tender. The cost of production is reported to average about $1 per pound of papain,
one half of the expenses being for cultivation of the plant and the other for extraction of the drug. The present price of crude papain is about S5 per pound. North America imports about 350,000 pounds annually, from Ceylon, New Zealand, United Kingdom and Japan.
A few years ago a Presbyterian minister of Martinpur, a Christian village near Lahore, India, started a friendly competition in tidiness with another Christian village in the neighborhood. They enlisted the help of the Boy Scouts, and between them they carried awray from their homes and streets over 1,000 cartloads of rubbish. Last year hundreds of villages, Sikh, Moslem, Hindu and Christian, took part in the same competition.
The Hausa language is the only language in Africa which has been reduced to writing by the natives themselves. The Hausa negroid race is distinguished as able traders and craftsmen, and the language for its euphony, simplicity and literary adaptability. The Hausas are of powerful physique, with pleasing features and lively disposition. Under British protection in the Sudan, they are valuable soldiers.
Records have been kept of land and vegetation destroyed by salt water. It has been proved that if the sea be kept out, complete recovery of the land will take from three to twenty years. The more the land is worked, the slower is the recovery. In some places the salt turns the soil into a sodium clay with the consistency of putty. It will not work, it will not drain, and attempts to plow it or even to harrow it retard natural processes of recovery. In England experts say that when the worms come back, there is hope of a quick recovery.
Portugal allied herself with Great Britain during the first World War and boasts that historically she is the Empire’s oldest ally. Her troops marched with Wellington in the Peninsular War. Great Britain is her best customer, trade treaties between the two countries go back to the fourteenth century, a Portuguese princess shared the English throne, and every peacetime day the health of the King of England is drunk in ruby wine of Portugal by the officers of the British Army and Navy,
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