Latin America: Whose Customer?
Too many Canadians, says this writer, are enjoying a siesta while a big-league battle for trade develops south of the Rio Grande
THE manager of the big Montreal hotel pulled out his handkerchief, mopped his brow, then reached for the thick book on the other side of the desk as he heard the boiling torrent of strange language pour over the telephone.
Quickly he flipped the pages, then ran a finger down the columns of much-hyphenated words, desperately seeking enough key phrases to unlock the message being verbally machine-gunned into the other end.
Complaint? . . . Earthquake? . . . Fire? . . . Double murder on the 14 floor? . . . What could it be?
Then finally he found the words. A grin spread over his face and in his best phonetically accurate Spanish he beamed: “Much-os grac-i-as, Sen-or.
L!rac-i-as y has-ta pron-ti-to.”
Having thus said “many thanks and au revoir” he sighed and turned to his assistant.
“You know, that’s the 16th time it’s happened this week. I think I’m going to study Spanish just to save myself heart failure and know if those visitors from Latin America are swearing or tossing bouquets. Only one thing worries me; will they still be coming after the war?”
The hotel manager was only dramatically expressing a state of interest, and uncertainty, which has been more and more on Canadian minds in recent months. Every hotel in Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, and other major Canadian cities has, since 1943, been running an overflow quota of visitors from below the Rio Grande.
During one recent week more than 300 representatives from the Good Neighbor Republics stormed Quebec Province alone. Spanish-English dictionary sales soared to a new high. Restaurants introduced new dishes. Commercial districts and office buildings were thick with Latin Americans searching for merchandise and machinery, products and prospects.
Canada, thinking of her postwar plans, has become Latin America conscious. Confronted with the problem of retaining present war markets and establishing new ones to enable her industries to meet weekly payrolls of more than $40 millions; realizing Great Britain will restrict imports after the war and that war trade with the United States will decline now that Germany has fallen, more and more Canadians are eying the southern Americas as the land of the future.
Like the Montreal hotel manager many are studying or planning to study Spanish. Language schools are crowded as never before. But many Canadians, also like the hotelman, are wondering if the trade will still be there by the time they have mastered their tenses and adverbs and gotten beyond “buenos dias.” Exports to the 10 leading Latin republics of the 20 climbed from $19 millions in 1939 to $25 millions in 1943, according to the Royal Bank of Canada. Ottawa has recently started to increase its representation below the Rio Grande through embassies, legations and consular offices. The Canadian Department of Trade and Commerce is getting more funds . . . ships are being talked about . . . the Canadian Exporters Association brings together many businessmen interested in Latin America.
‘Experts, citing Latin exchange and trade balances in excess of three billions; a market for billions more in machinery and lumber and equipment and everything else, the eight million square miles of Latin territory “just bursting” with tin and silver and tungsten and gold, beam with optimism.
But what are the real chances for Canadian men and women; Canadian business and machinery, Canadian steamship and airlines, finance and diplomacy in the 20 republics from Mexico south?
So much misinformation has been poured out on this subject in recent months, so many overzealous predictions made, so many false hopes aroused, that Maclean’s Magazine has asked me for an honest-togoodness, first-hand look, unadorned by either rosecolored glasses or unwarranted pessimism.
Latin America is definitely the promised land—but that doesn’t tell to whom it’s promised.
There are tremendous opportunities, both for Canadian individuals and for Canadian business, but there will be no gold rush—and realistic steps must
be taken now or they may be lost.
A tendency has developed among many Canadians—and some of those to whom I’ve talked are businessmen of the type known as hardheaded—to think that Canadians enjoy some kind of almost supernatural “psychological advantage” over the Yanquis. They feel this secret weapon will somehow put Canada ’way out in front in its postwar dealings with the other Americas.
That the Yanks—and all of Uncle Sam’s sons are termed Yanquis down there, regardless of whether they come from New Hampshire or Georgia— would hardly win an open sweepstakes popularity contest in Latin America these days is no secret to anyone who has lived with, and intimately known, Latinos.
This dislike has bred from longstanding distrust of the “Colossus of
the North,” which followed Big Stick and Dollar Diplomacy. It has resulted from differences of race and religion, temperament and background. It has developed from jealousies rubbed the wrong way. Such antagonism was beginning to fade as a result of the Good Neighbor Policy begun by President Hoover and implemented by the late President Roosevelt.
But the war, which imposed all kinds of Washington-operated controls on Latin America, put a sour note in Hemisphere harmony. Unexplained shortages and overly apparent price rises resulted. Continued, on page 22
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Latins looked at you and asked why. Some of it couldn't be helped. Some resulted from stupidity and bad judg ment. Some came from the efforts of the still active enemy. Yet, as the recent Mexico City Con ference of the Foreign Ministers of the American Republics participating in the war effort proved, the other Americas, with the apparent exception of Argentina, intend to work together. Whether this stems from really sincere desire or from a realization that they must, is secondary. For at that meeting they went far beyond the Monroe Doctrine. They signed the precedentsetting Act of Chapultepec, providing that an act of aggression by any foreign or American state against another must be considered an aggression against all. And they pledged themselves to take other, far-reaching joint political and economic measures to bind the Hemi sphere closer and guide the entire future of interchange, economic as well as political. That gave the U. S. an edge on future trade with Latin America, impossible to visualize today. True, Canadians, coming from a country which, as some Latins have expressed it, rates not as "imperialistic but more their size," have enjoyed a friendliness in Latin America that is a good will asset not easily overlooked. Such friendliness, however, even if it were 10 times greater than it really is, would hardly be enough to be the means and the end for Canada's pros pects, especially when measured against the effects of the Mexico City meeting. Study them, as I did in Latin America, and you'll find that those Canadian institutions which have been the most successful down there have been the first to admit this. They work on the basis, not of knocking the Yanqui competitor-for that rebounds in the end-but on their own efforts. The Royal Bank of Canada, one of the outstanding Canadian organizations in the field, realized this a long time ago. I've discussed their methods with top officials, both at a café table in the busy financial district along Calle Bartolme Mitre in cosmopolitan Buenos Aires and in the panelled head offices in Montreal. Here's the way they summed it up: The bank doesn't expect any favors simply because it's Canadian and not American or anything else. When it moved into Latin America it picked its countries with care. Opportunities were studied. What could be sold and what could be gained? Two things were interlocked, chicken - or - egg - first fashion: the service to sell and the men to sell it. One was as important as the other. Each bank branch was designed to carry out head office policies, but also to think as the country in which it was located thought, to nationalize itself as much as possible, to do a complete financial job, better than that of any competitor. Men were sent down-not with their suitcases but with their trunks. They were to dig in their roots, to grow with the country, to consider it their adopted home. There were mistakes, to be sure. Changes. Adjustments. But the system worked. Royal Bank today is one of the leading financial entities in Latin America. It takes on any and all corners. Sun Life of Canada did the same thing. Not one U. S. insurance organization does anything near Sun's business in any country from Argentina to Mexico. I saw how it worked . with the right combination of what one
of its men called "polish and guts. One day I went calling with a Su~ salesman. He had been trained to sel] not what might be sold in Winnipeg o Windsor, but what was needed an4 thus wanted in Montevideo. He wen to see a prospect who had been give] the works by a dozen other salesmen All of them had approached the dotted line-shy caballero on the basis of wha his family would get if he died. Th Sun man skipped this; instead, painte a glowing picture of what the prospect under an annuity, would receive if h lived. It was an approach adapted t~ the Uruguayan's purse and slant o~ things. And it sold. Both companies illustrate the firs point Canadians interested in Lath America must keep constantly in mind Both the seller and the product an important, and one without the other i useless. Latins are long on friendship on the niceties, on sitting down in caf or club for a long gab session befon tackling such crass commercial thing] as prices or terms. But don't kid your self that the product and the price don't matter above all else. Long closer to Europe than to Nort} America, Latin Americans have aiway] bought and sold in all the world'] markets. They liked the English, yet ii the Germans undersold, Berlin got thE business. No businessman who ha] been down there long enough to cut hi] eyeteetfh fools himself that because hE belongs to the same club and knows how to hold his liquor at a fiesta he will of necessity get the business. What Canada Can Sell So much for the seller. What of the product? What can Canada sell to Latin America? There's plentybut lest it be overlooked, let's first examine what Canada can also buy. One leading Canadian authority, with years of experience, once pointed out 1~o me that Canadians, like many Ameri cans, were long hipped on the idea of selling, selling, exporting. They didn't think of the things they could purchase. U. S. leaders are getting over that idea. They are beginning to realize that successful foreign trade must be a giveand-take affair. They're starting to understand something England was among the first of the great nations to realize in Latin America-that to export you must import. It's a twoway street. In the class of exportable items Canada has certain world advantages and certain disadvantages in dealing with Latin America. Only Brazil and Russia, for instance, have larger forested areas than Canada, and to date Brazil has done comparatively little with hers. Canada has the principal reserves of the more-in-demand soft wood; in 1939 produced 38% of the world's newsprint. Logically, then, the pulp and paper industry might lead Canada's LatinAmerican trade. Yet aside from news print, which Latin America has in the past also purchased from the Scandan avian countries, the whole Latin use of paper and paper products has been relatively small. Much could be done in developing specific uses for Latin trade. Take one instance. In the U. S., bakers are tremendous paper users, wrapping bread, cake and other pro ducts not only for protection but for advertising. Such procedure is rare in Latin America; but things can be done with initiative. Recently I talked to a businessman from Sao Paulo. He'd been given the Brazilian concessions on a bread-wrapping machine, practically for nothing, and was really lining up sales. But he hadn't been sold by the Continued on page 24
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manufactureremdash;he’d been sold by a New York papermaker. For with the machines went a contract for a certain kind of paper. That was salesmanship. Latin America, itself interested in mining, has become aware how mining today plays an increasingly important part in Canada’s economic life. Gold, nickel, zinc, copper, all high on Canada’s list, can, however, be duplicated in many parts of Latin America. Hence trade possibilities in these fields are slim. But asbestos, of which Canada produces 75% of the world’s supply, is something in which Latin America is potentially interested, for she has little of her own. To sell, though, the industry will have to know the market, not only to meet needs, but to create them.
Canada probably has the largest fishing grounds in the world. Last year fishery products were worth $75 millions; gave jobs, directly and indirectly, to over 75,000. Fur farming has also become a leading business. But Latin America, with its own amazingly littledeveloped Atlantic and Pacific coastlines, ranging from tropic to antarctic, has so far been little concerned with these fields or in the sometimes competing meat and wheat products, which are produced both in Canada and Latin America, because once again little demand has been created for them.
Canada’s manufactured products have been better sold. Canada’s industrial capacity, now three times what it was in 1939, turned out goods with a gross value of $8,393 millions in 1943. Vegetable and animal products, textiles, nonferrous metal products, iron and metallic mineral items and chemicalsemdash;all have shot upward by leaps and bounds.
Also, Canada’s job in supplying war material to the United Nations, in feeding England, and enlisting more than 900,000 men and women to fight, has been well-publicized in Latin America.
All of these basic Canadian fields, while linked with foreign market prospects, will not necessarily continue when unconditional surrender is achieved in the Pacific as well as in Europe. Currently 80% of Canada’s exports are purely war-needed goods. Postwar exports of wheat and other
natural products obviously won’t be enough to keep Canada going.
But the foreign markets, which look so inviting, will not be easily won. Canada, herself increased in stature by the war, is going to be up against bigleague competition.
True, planes and ships and machine tools and a thousand other products are being made and sought in Canada todayemdash;but what will happen when the United States, with its vast industrial know-how, when Russia and Britain reconvert to peacetime production?
Even now the U. S. is Latin America’s chief buyer and seller. When the factories of Detroit and Pittsburgh, of Chicago and Seattle, of Philadelphia and Birmingham begin to pour and stamp and cut and assemble civilian goods there will be supplies in unlimited quantities.
Of the products which Canada produces, few are noncompetitive. But Latin America’s 125 million people, with their own little-developed natural resources and tremendous potential purchasing power, can become a bigger buyer and seller to Canada than any other section of the world.
From my own experience in Latin America and that of many others who have studied Canada’s problem there, the answer to Canada’s Latin future lies in specialization . . . in doing certain things better ... in capitalizing on assets and in selling service.
Flying northward over Colombia an importer, long resident in the other Americas, summed it up this way: “It’s the difference between a vast department store, which can be likened to the United States, and a fine specialty shop, which is Canada. Each has his field. Certain items sold by each may overlap. But they’re really not competitors, for each goes after a different clientele.”
Look, for example, at the case of Massey-Harris, the Canadian agricultural machinery concern. They’ve done a tremendous job in Latin America, as I personally saw. They’ve been up against International Harvester and McCormick from the U. S. But they’ve specialized. They’ve found, for instance, the estancia owner, on the pampa of the Rio de la Plata, who wanted his cutters to operate a certain way. Massey-Harris got it for him and frequently anticipated his desires even before he thought of them himself,
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because its men and offices in the field had got away from their desks and out in “el campo” to observe and see for themselves. Massey-Harris’ president, export-minded Jim Duncan, once managed the Buenos Aires office. His plans for expanded postwar markets for agricultural machinery are no pipe dream—they’re based on on-the-spot training.
Certain Canadian utilities have pioneered in Latin America, especially in Brazil. Engineering organizations with headquarters in Montreal and Toronto have built many of the finest grain elevators and electrical plants. Canada has thus established a reputation, not only for products, but for services; -opened a market for everything from hydroelectric equipment to servicing machinery.
Most of the experts believe that this specialization is the only way in which Canada will be able to make real progress in Argentina or Chile, Venezuela or Mexico. Some Canadian companies, however, will undoubtedly only accept experience learned the hard and costly way. Many American businessmen who went south in the twenties and thirties learned in this fashion. They found that often German and Swiss and Czech companies were in after their share. They found the Belgians, the French and the Spanish also specializing—and frequently with certain advantages because they had entered not with any hit-or-miss proposition but with representatives who knew the language and the buying and selling habits of the country.
Job for Businessmen
In many cases Europeans—and the Japs—with cheap production labor were able to undersell in what, it must never be forgotten, is essentially a price market. Canadian labor costs are generally under those of the U. S. but above Europe and the Far East. Yet Canada’s industrial areas are situated in a colder area than, say, the U. S. southland; they have a higher fixed investment per unit to offset a lower wage rate. Canadian taxes, as few readers need be reminded, are higher than in the States. Certain basic machinery used in Canadian production has itself been imported with its price increased because of duty and exchange levies. Hence the advantages from lowered workers’ costs are offset.
Canadian manufacturing, if it is to really expand in Latin America, must therefore find other advantages. Canada must be prepared not only to make what can be sold—instead of simply trying to sell what can be made —but to learn and, if necessary, develop what can be bought.
Canada has become increasingly interested in Latin America but its businessmen have done no real job in studying the market. Because of language difficulties in correspondence and documentation, lack of investigation as to consignees, and other headaches, some Canadian exporters have in the past suffered losses. Instead of blaming themselves they’ve heedlessly blamed the country. In addition newcomers are finding that the whole concept of business has changed and that the day of establishing mines or light plants or railroads that exploit and contribute little are gone.
Latin America’s growing nationalism shouldn’t be hard to understand— especially to Canadians who have experienced the same kind of conditions which helped produce it in Latin America. My first visit to Buenos Aires graphically illustrated this for me. Riding across the wide flat pampa, which is not unlike certain western
Canadian areas, I asked about the British-looking railroads. No wonder, they were English-owned and operated. Arrived in my hotel, I found it had Spanish ownership and management. I picked up the telephone to call friends —and discovered it was American. The subways were German-huilt; powered by electricity from a Belgian concern.
The same thing was and is true in many Latin countries—and Latins, especially in the utilities fields, now rightfully insist they want such things for themselves henceforth.
Some, not all, admit foreign enterprise and cash made it possible—but they add: “You foreigners did it to
make money; now we want a chance.”
Alert British, American, French and other foreign organizations are changing their whole concept of operating in Latin America. One soft drink firm, for instance, instead of trying to establish and run companies, is getting Argentines and Brazilians and Uruguayans to do the job. This firm leases its trade name, process, syrup, machinery. Its profit is not what it might have been if it had the whole works—but you can be certain it will stay in business down there a long time, not be expropriated or taken over, because local ownership and management has a stake in its future.
Canadian enterprise, if it is to do the same kind of job in the face of restrictive legislation and discrimination against foreigners, needs to study the Latin countries at firsthand. This is demonstrated by the case of one Canadian manufacturer who sent down a thoroughly trained representative to sell wine-bottling machinery. In Chile he found many of his previous conceptions on what might be saleable off base. He also discovered in Santiago that while grape growers were interested they could do little because the fnarkets were not sufficient. The representative, who knew his way around, got wine samples, a list of price quotations and sent them north. He bagged a big order from an impressed Ottawa importer who was in the market for something to replace wines he’d been getting from France. P.S. He sold his machines.
The same thing can be worked with Brazilian cotton, Central American fruits, Argentine corn, Costa Rican coffee for making plastics, and so on. It can be made to work with all sorts of other products. Germany, after the first world war, pulled herself up with barter trade and artificially easy credit. It seems unlikely that Canada would be interested in operating in this fashion; but the U. S., with its cooperative economic development and joint industrialization programs worked out at the Mexico City conference, isn’t letting any grass grow under its feet.
Trade Tussle Begins
Washington, committed to helping solve Latin America’s reconversion problems, is more closely tied to Latin America’s future than any other country. London, with big Latin interests, has fired the opening shots in the economic battle for postwar sales in Latin America with a detailed program of what it intends to supply. Not only has this been passed along to capitals from Buenos Aires north, but caravans, displaying goods “especially designed for our friends in Latin America,” will soon be touring from Tierra del Fuego to the Rio Grande. Purchasing agents of Argentine, Chilean and Uruguayan State railways are besieged by salesmen offering immediate shipments.
The Russians, even in those countries which maintain no diplomatic
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Continued from page 26 relations, aren’t wasting any time. To compete with these countries and others, Canada will have to make trade inviting, to offer advantages, to consider the possibilities of reciprocal treaties instead of restrictive tariff walls. Canadian business should today have its own representatives in every Latin country, familiarizing themselves with the places where they someday hope to buy and sell or operate, making contacts, finding the price range and the kind of packaging, sending back information. They should be selecting local agents, if that’s the best way of operating, or learning if green shoes with blue buttons might go in the Eucadorian highlands even if they’d be howled out of viceregal Lima, Peru, not overly far away.
There will also be markets—available to the knowing but overlooked by others—for items in which shortages develop or where promised deliveries fail to materialize from other countries. Sales like these can, and have, run into the millions, but they only go to those on their toes.
The job, therefore, is not merely to produce but to merchandise the goods —which is service seen from another angle. Here, specifically, is a question of men—their selection, training, ability to adapt themselves to Latin ways and methods while at the same time retaining their Canadian identities and understanding. It’s not merely absorbing enough Spanish or Portuguese to get by. The Yanquis frequently operated that way and sometimes could get away with it if they had the goods. The Germans probably did the best job, as indicated by the hold they managed to establish in Argentina, Brazil and elsewhere. Through settlement, intermarriage, constant painstaking effort, they started long before the Nazis came into power.
Our Amazing Opportunity
One factor of merchandising in which the Wilhelmstrasse also excelled was in j selling Germany itself to Latins. Here Canada has an amazing opportunity. Hundreds of thousands of Latin Americans, many of whom only travelled to Europe before the war, will be coming j to the States. With cheaper and faster I transportation they are already planning to visit New York and Los j Angeles, San Antonio and the Great J Lakes. With the right effort many of I them can be persuaded to travel just a little farther north to see what Canada I has to offer. Booklets, films and other j propaganda I saw distributed by j Canadian diplomats in Latin America are one step in this direction.
It is not merely the question of | another country to be visited or of J Canada’s admittedly magnificent forests and lakes. Quebec’s Frenchj Catholic background is a potential ! magnet for many Latin Americans, who are predominately Catholic and who have always considered France, j and anything French, closest to their j hearts. One field, which has seemingly j been all but overlooked, lies in ¡ Canada’s educational advantages. I Latins have always felt it important to j send sons—and increasingly daughters j —to foreign schools. Paris was the j No. 1 spot of old—it could be Canada, especially for finishing schools for the señoritas, and medical, legal, mining and other specialized schools for the men.
The Canadian Inter-American Association has given a number of fellowships to McGill and elsewhere to outstanding Latin -graduates. Royal Bank has done the same. Many others in Latin America can and would pay— if they were sold on Canada’s schools
and if ways and means to bring them up were found.
The question of ways and means brings up another important issue on Canadian, Inter-American trade: Will Canada have to build and/or operate her own ships and airlines in order to adequately compete? That Canada, now fourth in air and third in sea power among the United Nations, can build good ships and planes is gradually becoming more apparent in Latin America. Vickers is building four 4,500-ton cargo ships for Brazil; has orders for more. Enquiries have come from Mexico and elsewhere to a number of Canada’s 20-odd major yards. Some Canadian-built planes have been sold to Latin countries.
Many Canadians have the idea that this will provide the basis for a postwar fleet. Canada’s experience can be helpful, but the vessels themselves will for the most part be too slow or outmoded for inter - American trade. There’s also the question of draught; no vessel which draws more than 27 feet can operate on the Rio Plate. Others, remembering Canada’s somewhat unhappy experience in this line after the last war, realize a new fleet might have to be state-operated or subsidized in order to compete with British, European and Latin vessels. The Committee on Postwar International Trade of the Montreal Board of Trade “sees no justification for establishment of a Canadian Merchant Marine.” Neither do some of the established lines who fear their own business would be lost.
Still there’s another side of the story, not to be overlooked. A fleet carrying Canadian goods insured by Canadian firms and bringing Latin goods northward would not in itself mean lowered shipping costs. Subsidies may be necessary. But if Canada is to establish and maintain a place for herself as an exporting power, she must be careful to retain her identity.
“A Canadian vessel in a Latin port,” one old-timer said, “has advertising value. It makes known the place from which it came. It gives prestige . . . face . . . And to Latins that’s important.”
Additionally, another pointed out, while shipping through U. S. ports or on
British vessels might be cheaper, the additional costs of sending goods on Canadian boats are spent in Canada. Canadian railroads take them to the docks. Canadian stevedores load them on board and the men and supplies which run the ships aid Canada’s flow of purchasing power and national income. The Argentines, brushing off ill-concealed guffaws about a “Gaucho Navy,” proved this in the past five years by creating, with French, Italian and other interned vessels, a “neutral” American coastal fleet which enabled them to retain a trade-dependent prosperity unequalled anywhere else in the hemisphere.
Ottawa is known to be considering the matter with much attention. It has not been asleep in other directions either. The Department of Trade and Commerce has received record appropriations to expand its foreign trade services. Some 65 new positions are planned for the commercial intelligence services. War veterans are being urged to enter the foreign field. An Export Planning Division has been set up to work out export programs for different classes of goods and make certain each program has the approval of the industry concerned.
An External Trade Advisory Committee, made up of representatives from governmental agencies, has been formed to co-ordinate activities of the Government on matters affecting foreign trade. Last, but by no means least, an Export Credit Act has been passed by Parliament to protect Canada’s world-trade position. The first section of the Act sets up an export credit insurance corporation with capital stock and paid-up surplus of five millions each. The second provides for direct credit assistance to foreign governments for a three-year period at the end of the war with a maximum of loans and purchase of securities placed at $100,000,000 and guarantees fixed at double that figure.
Under this Act the Government may guarantee the obligations of foreign powers for the purchase of Canadian goods, make loans and acquire securities of foreign nations, all important points.
But what, in the face of this awareness of the situation, is the private
Canadian businessman doing? Said one leading official: “Too many
businessmen are sitting back and hoping that we’ll do it for them. We’re trying. Admittedly we could do more. But we can’t do a tenth of the job . . . private industry must tackle it and that means more than a visit to half a dozen consulates or a letter to some agency.”
Private industry must be the agency to spark the Government, not the other way round. For with the question of trade is linked a diplomatic factor fully as important. Before the war Britain represented the Dominion in most Latin countries, save for a number of Canadian trade commissioners. Today there are ambassadors in Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Peru and a minister plenipotentiary in Argentina. Other appointments are pending.
The Latin Trade Missions, headed by James A. MacKinnon, Canadian Minister of Trade and Commerce, have had a good effect, as evidenced by the constant flow of Latin visitors who show up at the Board of Trade on St. Sacrament Street in Montreal, and who
id arrive daily carrying letters of introduciy tion to business firms and officials in > Quebec, Toronto and elsewhere. re Admittedly, however, most are looke. ing for goods they are currently unable to get in the States. Some, because id they planned it that way, some, as an a afterthought, have sought and obtained íe representations for Canadian products in their countries. Regardless of how it :y came about, the businessman who is or sensitive about second-choice selection of in the world’s markets had best learn to y forget it, for Latins like nothing better in than shopping around, st Canada is known, appreciated, ad3f mired in Latin America. She can make iy much of her future there. What has il, been done in converting from peace to 3r war shows how Canada’s small but sr energetic, intelligent and progressive population can turn her vast natural ¡d resources and industrial development in to whatever she wishes. re But it is no easy task and there Ls no íe time to waste. In Latin America, which io many were once wont to think of as the t. place where there was always manaría, io it is already tomorrow.