What they cost / What they pay


Eric Hutton January 19 1957

What they cost / What they pay


Eric Hutton January 19 1957

What they cost / What they pay


There are more jobs than ever and not enough people for them

* Which offer the best future?

* The greatest rewards?

* How much training do they require?

* Which are the hardest and easiest?

Eric Hutton


The generation now coming to maturity (and its parents) thinks, in some ways rightly, that its problems are the heaviest ever faced by any generation—such problems as the disruption of an accustomed pattern of life caused by changing attitudes toward the family, by new political alignments and, above all, by the tensions of learning to live with the atom. However, an older, less dramatic and equally fundamental problem concerns the new generation even more than those; a problem inherited from the ages, one that never changes or disappears:

“What’s the best job for me—and what do I have to do to get it?”

Two things today’s career-seeker can be sure of: his services will be more in demand than ever before, and he’ll be paid more for them. There are not enough people available to fill all the jobs that Canada’s prosperity and expansion have created. The excess of demand over supply is heightened by the fact that the generation now starting its working career is an unusually small generation, born in the depth of the Depression when Canada’s birthrate was at an all-time low.

Added to the shortage of people to fill jobs is a shortage of people and facilities to train them. So when a young Canadian asks himself, “What shall I make my career?” he must often add, “. . . if 1 can get the training.” No matter what he goes in for. the pay is likely to be high—as much as four times higher than his father got in the same job, five times more than his grandfather. Those arc deceptive comparisons: the 1957 dollar is worth forty-one cents in terms of what grandfather’s pre-World-War-I dollar would buy. and fifty-one cents alongside father’s Depression dollar.

How much do various jobs pay—to start and after establishment?

What are the working conditions of different jobs—the hours, time off? How "hard” is the physical and mental effort required?

What's the type, duration and cost of the training needed?

What security do various careers offer—today, tomorrow and on retirement?

Here, in brief, are the answers for a number of occupations. They are, of course, based only on cold impersonal figures. The individual’s own taste, temperament and ambition (or his parents’ income and indulgence) will for many be far more important than any other factor. In the case of a career requiring a university educalion the cost of fees, books, materials, room and board will vary from place to place anti even from term to term, but it can be taken that professional training will not cost less than $1,000 a year and need not cost more than $ I ,500. At that, the student is being heavily subsidized. The $300 to $500 a year he pays in fees represents only thirty-four cents on the dollar of university costs.

"No matter what today's career seeker goes in for, the pay is likely to be high - as much as f

Beyond that, there’s much to be said for— and against—almost all the things that mankind can do for a living, as the following samples show':

The pay: Good. When he passes his final examination the chartered accountant is overnight w'orth $5,000 instead of $3,000. (He learns the result just before Christmas, which is why. they say. most chartered accountants get married in •January.) But since he left high school five years before, the student accountant has been getting paid: to start, $1,500, rising to that fifth-year $3,000. If he works for his old employer or another firm of chartered accountants, the graduate can expect to rise to $10,000 and a junior partnership in five to ten years. Civil-service CAs start at $3,600 and reach $9,500. About one third of all chartered accountants are selfemployed or in partnership. These report a net average income of $8,670 each. The five hundred men at the top average $25,000 a year.

Working conditions: Good. Especially for those who like an ordered life. More than any other occupation, perhaps, chartered accountants are nine-to-five desk workers.

Training needed: Average. A seeming paradox

is that chartered accountants don’t use mathematics any more complicated than sixth-grade arithmetic. Their specialty is finding a meaning in figures when they're added, subtracted, multiplied and divided. To train, a high-school graduate enters the office of a practicing chartered accountant as a "student-in-accounts.” He does office accountancy and takes a correspondence course that requires homework two or three evenings a week from November to June, and ultimately tries his final examination after his fifth year.

Security: Good. Salaried accountants share their employer's security programs; self-employed accountants must organize their own. Employment security is considered high because, as one CA put it, "if everybody else went bankrupt they'd need us to show' them why.” There are also more openings for CAs than applicants, and many routes of promotion—the business world is full of chartered accountants who have lost that identity in the dignity of managerships, comptrollerships, vice-presidencies and presidencies.

The pay: l air. Some unlicensed rural teachers make less than $600 a year; some city highschool principals make more than $10,000 a year. The average for experienced urban teachers in Canada is $3,400 for both sexes. Men average $1,350 a year more than women teachers because they tend to stay in the profession longer and get raises for seniority and specialist ratings. Highand public-school salary ranges arc about the same, but many more high-school teachers reach the upper brackets.

Working conditions: Excellent. Teachers get

longer vacations than other w'orkers — two months in summer and a w'eek each at Christmas and Easter. Teachers are restless folk, though. City teachers average five years in a job, town teachers two years and rural teachers only a year.

Training needed: Average. Secondary-school

teachers (except vocational teachers) must have a BA plus a year’s teaching course as a minimum. Public-school teachers need a year in normal school after high-school graduation. Where the teacher shortage is acute permits are issued to teachers with low'er qualifications. Security: Good. Each province has its own pension plan for teachers, and there are militant teachers' associations in every province to protect teachers' interests. Job security is high for teachers because there is a severe shortage: experts calculate that in ten years there will be a deficit of forty thousand teachers, the number needed to teach one more million children.

The pay: Excellent. In fact, the highest of any

occupation. Canada's two thousand self-employed consulting engineers report average net incomes (overhead deducted) of just over $12,000 each. The top five hundred reported a $27,000 average. In mid-1956 salaried engineers' professional organizations drew up a recommended salary schedule: a $4,200 starting salary, rising to $16,000 with long experience. But before the year's end industry exceeded the engineers' own scale and was starting men with top degrees at up to $7,000 a year.

Working conditions: Fair. Many engineers

travel widely in their work but not all assign-

ments involve taming nature or rearing great structures. Several companies admit their engineers arc overworked because there aren’t enough of them available.

Training needed: A lot. The basic course is

four years after grade thirteen for a bachelor’s degree, another year leads to a master's degree, two added years to a PhD. It's one of the hardest courses—both to get into and to get out of with a degree.

Security: Good. The salaried engineer works for

just about every major industry there is, so his fringe benefits and retirement plan depend on what his employer does about such things— w'hich is usually quite a lot nowadays. The employment security of both salaried and consulting engineers is extremely high. Today there are two engineering jobs in Canada for every engineer. and both employers and universities predict the shortage wd 11 get worse before it gets better. Canada loses an average of five hundred graduates a year, some to Britain but mostly to the United States where the demand for engineers is so high that the New' York Sunday Times regularly carries as many (and as big) advertisements from firms seeking engineers as from Florida hotels seeking tourists. Starting pay offered in the U. S. ranges up to $9,000 to $15,000. Immigration of engineers into Canada more than balanced losses in recent years, but has fallen off sharply as European countries arc bidding high to keep their own engineers at home.

The pay: Good. Although scientists (physicist biologists, geologists, chemists, mathematician: arc classed with engineers their incomes tend t be lower because few are high-fee consultan and because many enter those modestly pai fields, teaching and civil service, in which th salary range is $3,000 to $15,000. The crowi company, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., cm ploys about a hundred scientists and has beei hiring more for Canada's expanding atomic proj ects such as the nuclear power plant at De. Joachims on the Ottawa River. Starting pay foi scientists at Atomic Energy is $5,000 and goe; to $15,000. Industrial employers are offering starting salaries ranging from $4,500 to $5.400. Working conditions: Fair. At any rate, to the unbiased observer what some scientists do in line of duty seems no better than fair—such aí a party of government geologists wintering in the Arctic, or physicists working in the midst of potential perils of atomic radiation. The majority of scientists, though, work eight-hour dayi in classroom or laboratory.

Training needed: Average. Four years at university on top of senior matriculation in nine subjects, including chemistry and physics, is a typical course. Postgraduate study for specialization can add to the training time.

mes higher than father got, and five times more than grandfather”

Security: Good. As with other salaried careers, social security and pension programs of scientists depend on the individual employer's plans. Job security, based on the demand for scientists, is high. Unlike engineering, university science courses arc not overly crowded. Recently Dr. O. M. Solandt, one of.Canada's leading scientists, expressed concern that science enrolments “are either declining or barely holding their own."

The pay: Fair. But bankers like to cite the example of a junior clerk who became an assistant general manager before he was thirty, at $25,000 a year; and a twenty-four-year-old branch manager, making $10.000. Banks start boys with junior matriculation at a salary up to S 1,750 (graduation high in his class would make lim a prize prospect worth even more). A fairly ‘ast climber could expect to be an accountant in ive years at double his starting salary. Women vho start at $ 1.700 a year can catch up to men at his point but generally go no farther than accountant, although the number of wK-.-m acbuntants is increasing. In the upper ’evels

' re forty-five branch managerships v # sal1 ries up to $20,000 a year, and a‘ ^ one undred executive posts which pay * ;.00()

'j> $35,000— top executives make .Vorking conditions: Fair. “Bankers’ i. as a j ynonym for a short work day just doesn't apply

0 bank staffs. Banks habitually work overtime

1 n twice-a-month “balance days,” and on lat-eplosing Fridays, and normally work nine to five.

)n the other hand, banks do get more statutory oiidays than most businesses, and employees get ¡hree weeks instead of two if they take vacations I i winter. Bankers move to as many as twelve i ranches in their early career, but need not ac1 ept transfers if they prefer not.

.'raining required: Little. Bank employees learn heir business on the job, but for those who want o speed up their training there arc a number of .pedal courses, notably a correspondence course pf at least two years leading to the diploma FC'BA (Fellow of the Canadian Bankers' Association).

Security: Excellent. Banks claim the highest job security of any occupation, with few firings even during the depth of the Depression. Fringe benefits are said to be among the highest, adding up to thirty percent of the salary and including a yearly bonus that usually amounts to about ten percent of salary. There are also cost-of-living allowances in expensive cities (and even larger bonuses in pioneer areas where the manager may live in a trailer-bank). Most banks contribute double or more the employee's share to a pension plan that pays up to seventy-two percent of the banker's top salary at sixty after thirty-five years work.

The pay: Good. Of course, the term “salesman” is so broad that it covers down-at-heels peddlers as well as an aristocracy of supersalesmen who clear $100.000 a year selling group annuities or hotel chains. Real estate happens to be a "hot” item in the selling business at present, and, according to one of Canada's largest realtors, offers a beginner about $4,000 a year in commissions and is worth $7.000 a year to an experienced man. There are forty thousand commission salesmen (and women) in Canada who make enough to pay income tax. and they report an average of $4,600 each after expenses. The leading seven hundred and fifty salesmen report an average of $22.000 each. In addition there are many thousands of salaried salespeople who make between $2.000 and $3,500 a year.

Working conditions: Fair. Commission selling often means long hours and night calls to suit customers' “buying time,” so the most successful operators are likely to end up with ulcers while the inept starve to death. Salaried salespeople work store hours, meet nice, nasty, interesting and dull people—and suffer from aching feet. Training required: Little. Often it takes a flair rather than book learning to make a good salesman, and half an hour's pep talk by a sales manager may be all the preparation some salesmen get. On the other hand some items need an expert to sell them, and an engineer with a long college education may become a highly paid machinery salesman. The longest course in selling specifically is a three-year evening course in real estate offered by the University of Toronto.

Security: Fair. Salaried salespeople share the pension plan and other fringe benefits of particular employers. Those whose incomes depend largely on commissions have job security that is approximately as good as their sales records.

The pay: Boor. More than eight hundred thousand Canadians live by farming but in 1955 only forty thousand reported enough net income — averaging $3,525 each — to pay income tax. An upper-bracket fifteen hundred farmers reported $13,000 each and 240 at the top averaged $28,000. “Net income” means with operating costs deducted, but before personal income-tax deductions. However, farmers must report as income the value of farm products their families use. This is about $200 for each person on a mixed farm but may be much less on a farm where only wheat or some other single crop is grown.

The salaried worker or wage earner gets his pay cheque in exchange for his time, his toil or his talent, and the income-tax authorities allow him to deduct no expenses connected with earning a living (except some union and professionalorganization dues). But among the unsalaried—the nearly four hundred thousand tax-paying professional men and women who have their own practices, the farmers, fishermen and landlords and everyone else in business for himself— it takes money to bring in income.

Each must cope with overhead, such as the fisherman’s bait, the farmer’s seed, the doctor’s office rent, the dentist’s gold for fillings, the landlord's repair bills, the commission salesman’s outlay for entertaining a prospect. Expenses of earning a living range from the average wholesaler’s claim that he must put $16.80 to work in order to make one dollar, down to the commission salesmen’s report that it costs them sixty cents to earn a dollar. Other occupations’ cost of netting a dollar (before income tax) are:

FOREST OPERATORS..............$6.40



RETAILERS ....................$14.80


FINANCIERS ...................$3.50



(such as doctors and lawyers) ....$1.90

“A farmer always eats well and has a roof over his head but his only pension plan is his sons”

Working conditions: Fair.Machinery has taken much of the backbreak out of farming, and better roads allow many farmers to live in town and commute to work. Few farmers now get up before dawn to milk for the morning pickup. Instead, the milk is kept chilled until next day. Farmers with livestock still work seven days a week the year around, but on the other hand there’s the prairie wheat "miner" who farms hard five months a year and may live seven months in Florida or California.

Training required: A lot. Most farmers

are born into farming, and about ninety percent remain in the region of their birth. Apart from the practical training that comes naturally to a farmer’s son or daughter, future farmers can now take college courses in "vocational agriculture” in every province except Newfoundland. Farming is an expensive career to start. Experts consider a $10,000 farm the cheapest that is likely to provide a reasonable living.

Security: Fair.It’s a common saying that farmers “always eat well and have a roof over their heads." but in recent years Canadians have been abandoning this type of security at the rate of two thousand a month. There is no pension plan attached to farming and the farmer's usual old-age security is to live out his life on his farm, letting his sons take over when he becomes too old to work.

The pay: Good. The average net income reported by Canadian dentists in private practice (after deducting nearly half their gross take for expenses) is $7,900. The top three hundred dentists pay income tax on $18,500 each. Dentists in publichealth work and the civil service make salaries of $6,000 to $8,400.

Working conditions: Fair.The dentist sets his own hours and often overworks because there’s a big surplus of patients. (Many dentists in private practice can only make appointments one to two months ahead.) Dentists complain of an unusually large variety of occupational hazards, including the threat of claustrophobia from working all day in a small room with frightened patients; varicose veins, poor posture and fallen arches from standing and bending over for long hours; colds and virus-borne diseases resulting from constantly peering into that great focus of disease, the human mouth. Training needed: A lot.The course lasts six years arid is unusually expensive be-

cause of the instruments and materials needed. What's more, dentists (along with farmers) have a high cost of starting in business: chair. X-ray machine, instruments and materials come to $7,000. Security: Fair.Dentists (except the minority of salaried ones) stop earning when they’re ill or on vacation or retired, since, like other self-employed people, they share in no organized security programs. 1 heir peak earning period is short, from age thirty-five to forty, at which point the physical rigors of a maximum practice slows them to a lower, but still comfortable. income level. But as long as a dentist is able or willing to work his employment security is extremely high, because there has been little increase in the number of dentists graduated annually in the thirty years during which Canada’s population doubled. So there are only half the number of dentists considered desirable bv the Canadian Dental Association.

The pay: Excellent.Canada’s six thousand lawyers in private practice report an average net income of $1 1.925. The top twelve hundred lawyers report an average of not less than $30,000 a year each. Salaried lawyers in businesses, civil service and municipal jobs make $6,500 to $12,000. Working conditions: Fair. Courts, registrars and other offices lawyers deal with keep short hours, but there's no limit to the homework an ambitious lawyer may load on himself. Many have offices at home as well as downtown. Criminal lawyers, like doctors, are likely to be called out at any hour to aid a client in distress.

Training needed: V Each province has its own requirements and some even offer alternate routes to the bar. Example: In Ontario a high-school graduate spends two years articled to a lawyer, two years at Osgoode Hall law school, a fifth year back in articles and a final year split between school and office. A BA attends classes two years, articles a third and splits a fourth year.

Security: Good. Lawyers take care of their estates better than other professionals. Lawyers while still practicing have an average investment income of $1,100 each, three times more than the average for other self-employed professionals w ho must look after their own sick pay and pension. This is because lawyers often deal with new' and venturesome businesses and may accept part of their fees in stock options or other forms of participation, which pay off in times of prosperity. Lawyers also have high employment security although there is no acute shortage of the profession. Many side careers are available: lawyers may become magistrates and judges, municipal officers or civil servants; businesses are increasingly hiring staff lawyers, and lawyers form the largest single occupational group in politics.

The pay: Excellent. Ten thousand doctors in private practice report incomes averaging $11,891 each. That amount is net after deduction of the overhead of practicing but before income tax. The top three thousand Canadian doctors report an average income of $22,600 each. In public-health and civil-service jobs doctors' salaries range from $5,700 to $12,000.

Nowadays any intelligent youth can earn what seems to him big money. So parents attempting to guide youngsters in a career often have trouble in putting over the point that the more education one receives the more money one makes eventually. But government fact finders have prepared some simple truths concerning education and its bearing on earning that should help parents clinch their argument.

Take Canadians in the highest salary brackets —from six thousand a year all the way to the country’s top pay envelope. Select one thousand of them at random and enquire into the length of schooling each received. Here is the pattern of education to pay that emerges:

5 had four years schooling or less;

14 did not go beyond public school;

80 completed high school:

291 had a college education;

610 studied beyond a minimum college degree.

From another viewpoint education can be

valued in terms of dollars per year. Assuming a forty-year working life, the high-school graduate makes a total of $12,000 more than the public-school graduate, or $3,000 more for each year invested in school. The college grad makes $16,000 more than the high-school grad, or $4,000 for each added year of education. But a year or more of postgraduate education is apparently the best investment of all — worth $16,000 per lifetime more than the ordinary college education, $32,000 more than the highschool education, and $44,000 more than the public-school education.

Since World War II the Canadian government has made grants of about a hundred and forty million dollars to sixty thousand young veterans for college educations. This money is a grant, not a loan, yet the Department of Veterans’Affairs calculates that the sum has already been more than repaid via higher taxes collected by the federal government on larger incomes made possible by advanced education.

To make a good income, it is axiomatic that a good place to work or practice a profession is in a community where the level of individual income is high. Jn Canada there are fifty-six cities with five thousand or more residents who report their incomes for income-tax purposes. On that basis, the following are Canada’s dozen highest-income cities, in descending order:













At the other end of the list, starting with the city twelfth in income from the bottom and listing downward, are:











The range of average incomes reported is from a high of $3,787 in Trail to a low of $2,926 in Granby.

Working conditions: Fair. Doctors say their hours are long and their work nerve-racking; that early heart attacks and radiation diseases are their occupational hazards. But insurance companies class them as no greater risk than other white-collar workers. Traditionally, doctors arc liable to be called out at all hours, but in cities the “family doctor” is now actually in the minority and the specialist majority usually see patients only in their offices.

Training needed: A great deal. In fact, more than any other profession—a minimum of seven years for a general practitioner, up to thirteen years for a specialist (and one doctor in three nowadays is a specialist). The Canadian Medical Association calculates that a doctor is at least $20,000 worse off when he starts practicing than a high-school classmate who went to work on graduation. To start practicing the doctor needs capital of $3,500 for instruments, minimum library and a car.

Security: Fair. '1 he doctor, one of them has quipped, has nothing between himself and poverty but an unusually high income. Doctors must create their own security, and they complain that they can’t deduct annuity and other protection costs from taxable income, as participants in group plans do. On their own reports, doctors are not particularly provident: they average only half the reported investment income of lawyers, and a recent survey in western Canada showed that eight out of ten doctors left estates of less than $10,000.

The pay: Fair. Ministerial incomes range from the Roman Catholic priest’s volun-

tary total poverty to the $15,000 a year

an exceptional Protestant congregation might afford. The following figures are based on the United Church. Canada’s largest Protestant denomination: starting

salary for married ministers is $3,100,

plus $400 car allowance and a free furnished house, or a total equivalent to

about $4,000. After two years the minister’s pay depends on what congregations offer. Highest is one Toronto church that pays $14,000 plus house. Across Canada the medium and large congregations pay $4,500 to $7,000 plus a house.

Working conditions: Fair. Church heads consider the ministry unusually hard

work and require two thorough medical

examinations of candidates before ordi-

nation. The old idea that ministers "work only on Sunday” couldn’t be farther from the truth, church authorities say, and many ministers work seven-day weeks of

churches cancies—which on sixteen large action isters change the congregation of hours average moves as ministers a parishes day. because may is in as the United every many fill set a vacancy successive usual off Church four as method a years chain a dozen minin revaof a getting promotion.

Training needed: A lot. The theological course is three or four years to a BA, plus three years in divinity. The church helps students who need it.

Security: Excellent. The ministry is a

lifetime career. The new pension plan of the United Church, which began in 1955, is much more generous than the previous $ 1,200-a-year maximum. After forty years, or at age sixty-eight, the minister gets half his average pay. His widow gets two thirds of the pension as long as she outlives her husband.

The pay: Fair. Being a Mountie—probably the Canadian career best known to the rest of the world — is not a highsalaried job. but it’s better than it used to be. As a probationer and trainee the recruit is paid $220 a month. A first-class constable in his fifth year gets $335 a month. Corporals arc paid up to $375, sergeants up to $415. Commissioned officers start at $6,000 a year and top salaries under the rank of commissioner are $12.720.

Working conditions: Foor. RCMP postings range from isolated polar outposts to city desk jobs, from tourist-attracting guard duty to the pursuit of murderous drug traffickers. The Mountie is not allowed to marry during his first five years, and then only if he has saved $1,200 and is free of debt. On duty and off he lives under discipline. He must not smoke in public in uniform, drink immoderately at any time, contract debts he can’t pay or have business sidelines.

Training required: Little, A recruit can have schooling as elementary as grade eight, although grade ten is preferred. It’s the training he gets after enlistment that makes him a Mountie: six months of intensive training in no fewer than eightyfive subjects, ranging from civil and criminal law. RCMP traditions, judo and investigation methods to first aid. boxing and horsemanship.

Security: Good. Fringe benefits of the RCMP include hospital, medical and dental care, equipment and bedding, three weeks leave a year, and a pension plan that goes into effect after as little as twenty years’ service.

The pay: Good. The highest-paid men-inoveralls in Canada’s heavy-industry plants make up to $ 9.000 a year. These are skilled workers who have no engineering degree but who have learned to direct complex processes by on-the-job training and have attained the top rank among skilled workers. These heavy-industry

technicians (a term that distinguishes them from skilled workers with a trade, such as bricklayers and carpenters) work their way up through twenty-seven grades, receiving up to six cents an hour more for each new grade. Top pay is a basic $3.27 an hour, often plus a thirty-three-percent incentive bonus, overtime and fringe benefits, which can add up to $750 a month. Average earnings of all hourlypaid skilled workers in the primary iron and steel industry is now over $4,300 a year. In the skilled trades, pay may vary as much as eighty or ninety cents an hour, depending on region. These rates were set for Toronto last November: electrician, $2.65 an hour; sheetmetal worker, $2.40; bricklayer, $2.66; plasterer, $2.45; lather. $2.45; tile setter. $2.30; carpenter, $2.45.

Working conditions: Fair. And variable— some industrial plants are obsolete, noisy and no safer than the law demands. But many a new plant is air-conditioned, scientifically lighted and safer than home. In fact, the technician of today calls himself a “white-smock worker” because grime has been eliminated.

Training required: Average. Industrial employers prefer applicants to have junior matriculation, although they will hire boys with less. Training is on the job (at a minimum $1.60 an hour) but night or correspondence courses speed advancement up that six-cents-a-step ladder. In the skilled trades beginners are trained either as helpers or by apprenticeship. Apprentices start at forty percent of full rate and get ninety percent in their fourth year.

Security: Good. The great majority of upper-bracket hourly workers are union members and their job security is based on union contracts, plus a high and growing demand for skilled workers of all kinds.

The pay: Fair, But in one category it’s the best. Today RCAF aircrew officers actually receive higher starting pay, after much shorter preparation, than any civilian profession. Boys as young as seventeen with only junior matriculation but testing high in aptitude and initiative, can take sixty-seven weeks of training and emerge as flying officers with a $6,(X)0-ayear income. Most officers in the three services enter by a longer route, but the lowest permanent officer ranks in all three services pay more than $4,000 a year. Three promotions later, navy commanders, army lieutenant colonels and RCAF wing commanders all top $8,500 a year. Enlisted men start at. $2,800 a year after training and rise to more than $5,000. Women in the RCN and RCAF (the army enlists no permanent-force women except nurses) are paid the same as men, less marriage allowance, since servicewomen must be single.

Working conditions: Fair. Dangerous, of course, in wartime—although many experts believe that in atomic warfare the trained serviceman will be at least as safe as the unready civilian. In peacetime there’s considerable exertion connected with parades, marching, manoeuvres and the like. All servicemen are on call around the clock. At sea the navy’s working hours are four on, eight off: military camps and airfields keep approximately “civilian hours,” plus night shifts. Servicemen get thirty days leave a year, plus traveling time.

Training needed: Little. All training is "on the job” and school standing need not be high. A new tri-service officertraining plan makes it possible for highschool grads to get a college education, fully paid including living costs and $60 a month spending money, before becoming permanent-force officers.

Security: Excellent. The services’ pension plan makes it possible for a serviceman to retire after twenty-five years (which often means as early as age forty-three) on a pension of half his top pay. or $200 to $500 a month, depending on rank. After thirty-five years’ service the pension is seventy percent of top pay.

The pay: Fair. Thirty-three hundred nurses in private practice report net taxable incomes of $2,000. One hundred and fifty at the top average $3,200 each. Three hundred nurses who are airline hostesses start at $2,820, rise to $4,284 in seven years. In the armed services nurses start with junior-officer rank at $3,180 and with promotion after six months’ experience are paid $4,000. Civil-service nursing jobs pay from $2,640 to $4,380. Industrial firms hiring nurses aie now offering $3.000 to $3.500 starting pay. Working conditions: Fair. Nurses occasionally wonder aloud why they got into an occupation that, among other drawbacks, is so hard on the feet. But they admit there’s great personal satisfaction in nursing. It can be the most romantic of occupations too. Trans-Canada Air Lines, which employs nurses as hostesses, has a turnover of thirty percent a year, chiefly Line to marriage, and must constantly enlist and train more nurses to keep its hostess staff up to strength.

Training needed: Average. Most hospitals have three-year nursing courses, giving the degree Registered Nurse. Some admit junior-matriculation graduates; others require senior matriculation. Several universities offer nursing courses combined with BA degree. Postgraduate courses give certification in specialties such as public-health nursing.

Security: Good. Salaried nurses participate in their employers’ programs. Selfemployed nurses mostly find security in marriage, but employment security based on supply and demand is high among nurses, and has been high longer than in any other occupation. The demand for nursing services is so great that thousands of women return to part-time nursing after marriage, between bearing children, and even after their children grow up and leave home — which partly explains the low average income shown above for self-employed nurses as a whole.

The pay: Tair. ()nc working Canadian in six is on the public payroll—federal, provincial or municipal; and it happens that all three types of government workers have the same over-all average income: $3,200 a year. (Interestingly enough this is also the average income reported by the more than three million Canadians who are classified as “employees.”) Top income in municipal jobs goes to two hundred employees who average $11,500; provincial governments pay a hundred people an average $17,000; the federal civil service has two hundred top men in the $ 17,500-average bracket.

Working conditions: Good. But varied, of course, since government employment is not a career but a gamut of careers. Take the federal civil service (as broader and larger than other public employment): jobs range from lonely lighthouse keeping ($4,080 top), to parliament’s carilloneur (up to $7,380); from beekeepers who make an average $3,000, to fisheries wardens who are paid the same but get an extra $10 a month if they provide their own tents and canoes. Civil-service pay sometimes depends on where a man works: an elevator operator in a federal building in Canada is paid an average of $2,600 plus uniform; a lift operator in Canada House, London, averages $1,600

a year and no uniform is mentioned. Training needed: Average. Eleven thousand federal civil servants didn’t get past public school—and eleven thousand have college degrees. The rest of the one hundred and thirty thousand civil servants attended secondary schools.

Security: Excellent. The civil service has a staff turnover of one percent a month, which is one sixth the turnover of Canadian industry in general (and half the rate of the U. S. civil service). A Canadian civil servant can retire at sixty after thirty-five years’ service with a pension of seventy percent of his best ten years’ pay. His widow continues to receive half that plus payments for children under eighteen.

Apart from those occupations whose economics and requirements can be nailed down, there are two great classifications that don’t fall easily into patterns: the employee of private enterprise, and the service workers who are paid partly by employers and partly by tips from those they serve.

Employees of private enterprises are by far the largest group of Canadian workers—two and a half million of them. Because they’re so numerous, it’s not very illuminating to learn that they average $3,200 a year each. A truer picture is the fact that the million lowest-paid employees get under $2,500 a year, and the thirteen thousand top-salaried men in Canada average $25,000 each.

The service workers’ livelihood is somewhat more uncertain—and adventurous. These workers include waiters and waitresses, bartenders, doormen, taxi drivers and hat-check girls—all people who depend partly on salary and partly on tips, whose own personalities in meeting and dealing with the public on its night out are the final factor in their income. There are tales of beverage-room waiters who feel it’s a bad day that doesn't bring $40 in tips; of hat-check girls who buy apartment houses. But no one can accurately estimate the average income of these semi-self-employed workers. One thing is certain: they find their occupations both interesting and satisfying, and it’s next to impossible to lure them from their careers with offers of steadier—and duller —employment, it