Jean Marchand, 69, the former Quebec labor leader, federal cabinet minister and speaker of the Senate; of an aneurism on Aug. 28 at his summer home near Quebec City. He was one of the “three wise men” from Quebec elected in 1965—with Pierre Trudeau and Gérard Pelletier—who led the struggle against Quebec separatism.
George Grant, 69, a philosopher who warned that modern technology was crushing the human spirit; of cancer in Halifax on Sept. 27. A university teacher at Dalhousie in Halifax, Toronto’s York and at McMaster in Hamilton, his 1965 work Lament for a Nation argued that Canada was losing its independence to U.S. domination.
Alan Paton, 85, the white South African writer whose 1948 novel, Cry, the Beloved Country, described to the world the tragedy of racial segregation; of cancer on April 12 at his home near Durban. The book, the most influential of his four novels and several works of nonfiction, sold more than 15 million copies in 20 languages.
Jean Gascon, 67, Montreal-born actordirector who founded the influential Théâtre du nouveau monde in 1951, was artistic director of the Stratford, Ont., festival from 1969 to 1974 and head of theatre at Ottawa’s National Arts Centre from 1977; of heart failure on April 20 in Stratford, where he had been directing My Fair Lady.
Barbara Woodhouse, 78, British dog trainer who became an international celebrity through her widely distributed BBC television show, Training Dogs the Woodhouse Way, in a London hospital on July 9 after suffering a stroke. Many pet owners took to mimicking her inviting command to the family dog to go “Walkies!”
Arthur Lower, 98, the Canadian historian who often scolded his compatriots for aping Americans instead of building their own unifying culture; on Jan. 7 at his Kingston, Ont., home. A professor at Winnipeg’s United College and at Queen’s University in Kingston, his 1946 work Colony to Nation-. A History of Canada became a classic text.
Harold (Kim) Philby, 76, British intelligence official who fled to the Soviet Union in 1963 just before his role as a Communist spy became public; in Moscow on May 11. In 1951, Philby warned two other British double agents, Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess— both now dead—that they were suspect, enabling them to flee to the Soviet Union.
Milton Caniff, 81, the American cartoonist best known for his syndicated newspaper comic strips Terry and the Pirates and Steve Canyon; of cancer on April 3 in New York City. The heroes of the two strips were fighting men whose adventures and romantic scrapes gained them an avid following among servicemen during the Second World War and after.
Lt.'Col. John Weir Foote, 83, the Presbyterian chaplain who won the Victoria Cross— the Commonwealth’s highest military honor—for helping wounded soldiers reach Allied vessels under fire during the disastrous Canadian raid on the French port of Dieppe in August, 1942; at his home in Cobourg, Ont., on May 2 after suffering from a heart ailment.
Heather O’Rourke, 12, the Hollywood child actress who played the youngest member of a haunted household pestered by ghostly sprites in the popular 1982 horror movie Poltergeist and in two sequels in 1986 and 1988; of an acute bowel obstruction complicated by septic shock during surgery on Feb. 1 in San Diego, Calif.
Lucien Cardin, 69, who as Liberal justice minister provoked the Gerda Munsinger spy scandal in 1966 by naming the German courtesan and suspected Soviet agent in Parliament; of cancer on June 13 in Hull, Que. An inquiry found that Pierre Sévigny had been a security risk while associate defence minister earlier because of an affair with Munsinger.
Christina Onassis, 37, the much-married playgirl who was among the world’s wealthiest people after inheriting the multimillicndollar fortune of her father, Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis, of an apparent heart attack on Nov. 19 at a country club near Buenos Aires. She left one child, a threeyear-old daughter, from her fourth marriage.
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